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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Spanish COSER

Language: Spanish (code: es)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.14 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Johnatan Bonilla.

Repository: UD_Spanish-COSER
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: spoken

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Spanish-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [johnatan • bonillahuerfano (æt) ugent • be]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


The COSER UD Treebank (COSER-UD) is the first syntactically annotated corpus of spoken Spanish, based on a sample of the “Corpus Oral y Sonoro del Español Rural” (COSER; Fernández-Ordóñez 2005-present), meaning the “Audible Corpus of Spoken Rural Spanish”.

The COSER-UD treebank is a linguistic resource produced in the Universal Dependencies framework, especially adapted to the particularities of spoken Spanish, especially with regard to rural dialects drawn from the written transcript and audio recordings of the Corpus Oral y Sonoro del Español Rural (COSER).

It is tailored to the characteristics of speech, such as word-order fluidity, ellipsis, disfluencies, colloquial expressions, which are critical for capturing morphosyntactic and syntactic features of spoken Spanish mergules.

The treebank explores dialects from outside of urban areas, providing even more representative linguistic variation for NLP than they typically get in NLP resources. These efforts add exciting and much-needed diversity to the purely linguistic data that computational models use, and have a social purpose in preserving linguistic variation.


Johnatan E. Bonilla (treebank construction and annotation) Daniel Zeman (guidelines consulting)

Key reference

*Bonilla, J. E. (submitted). Development of the first spoken spanish treebank within the universal dependencies framework: A multi-regional approach.


Statistics of UD Spanish COSER

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive Passive

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview