home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Bambara CRB

Language: Bambara (code: bm)
Family: Mande

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.3 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Katya Aplonova, Francis Tyers.

Repository: UD_Bambara-CRB
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: nonfiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Bambara-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [aplooon (æt) gmail • com]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


The UD Bambara treebank is a section of the Corpus Référence du Bambara annotated natively with Universal Dependencies.

Bambara (also known as Bamana) is the most widely-spoken language of the Manding language group (Niger-Congo > Mande > Western Mande). It is spoken mainly in Mali by 13-14 million people; of these, around four million are L1 speakers. Development of the Bambara Reference Corpus was started in April 2012 (Vydrin 2013, Maslinsky 2014). The corpus includes a non-disambiguated sub-corpus and a disambiguated one. At present, the whole corpus contains about nine million tokens. The corpus was annotated using UD Annotatrix annotation tool (Tyers, Sheyanova, Washington 2018).

Documentation for the treebank is available on the UD web site.


The conversion and annotation has been done by Katya Aplonova and Francis M. Tyers at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow. We would like to thank the developers and annotators of the Corpus Référence du Bambara for permission to base this on their work.


If you use this corpus in your research please cite

author = {Aplonova, K. and Tyers, F. M.},
title = {Towards a dependency treebank for Bambara},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories},
pages = {138--146},
year = 2018


Statistics of UD Bambara CRB

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview