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This page pertains to UD version 2.

fixed: fixed multiword expression

The fixed relation is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials, and for which a unique head cannot be identified. These are a subset of multiword expressions that are morphosyntactically “fixed” in that they resist internal modification and inflection. (Compare: flat for headless expressions not behaving like function words; compound for headed expressions that morphosyntactically resemble single words; and goeswith for words that contain improper spacing.)

Fixed expressions are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the expression modify the first one using the fixed label.

At present, this relation is used inside the following expressions, semantically grouped for convenience:

Category Expressions
Augmentative/substitutive/conjunctive as well, as well as, rather than, instead of, let alone
Causal because of, due to, how come, in order, so as to, so that, such that
Spatiotemporal in between, prior to, on board
Circumstantial/conditional in case (of), whether or not
Approximators with a quantity: more than, less than, up to, as many/much/few/little as, all of
Attributional according to
Exemplification such as
Reciprocal Pronouns each other, one another
Pragmatic/miscellaneous all but, as for, as if, as opposed to, as to, at least (non-quantity), in that, kind/sort of (hedge), not to mention, of course, that is

Below the description of fixed expressions are a few idiomatic combinations that are analyzed without fixed. These are summarized as follows:

Non-fixed Expressions
Double spatial prepositions: out of, off of, etc.
about to; as soon/long as; at all, at best/worst, by far; at most/least (with quantities); compared to/with; had better; nothing/anything but; so long; what about, what if

fixed expressions

Augmentative/substitutive/conjunctive expressions

as well

I like dogs as/ADV well/ADV
advmod(like, as)
fixed(as, well)

as well as

I like dogs as/ADV well/ADV as/ADP cats
fixed(as-4, well)
fixed(as-4, as-6)
cc(cats, as-4)
conj(dogs, cats)

rather than

Typically analyzed as a coordinating conjunction:

I decided to get a dog rather than a cat
fixed(rather, than)
cc(cat, rather)
conj(dog, cat)

However, when fronted, it attaches as case or mark:

Rather than a cat , I decided to get a dog.
fixed(Rather, than)
case(cat, Rather)
obl(decided, cat)

instead of

Similar in meaning to rather than, but never analyzed as a coordinating conjunction, always case or mark:

John went instead of Mary
fixed(instead, of)
case(Mary, instead)
John left early instead of staying for the whole thing
fixed(instead, of)
mark(staying, instead)

let alone

He could n't handle being hurt , let/VERB alone/ADJ hurt by you
fixed(let, alone)
cc(hurt-10, let)
conj(hurt-6, hurt-10)

Causal connectives

because of (and other forms, such as b c of and b/c of)

He cried because/ADP[ExtPos=ADP] of/ADP you
case(you, because)
fixed(because, of)

due to (and other forms, such as d t and d/t)

He cried due/ADJ[ExtPos=ADP] to/ADP the fact that you hurt him
case(fact, due)
fixed(due, to)

how come

How come John left early ?
fixed(How, come)
advmod(left, How)

in order

He cried in order to make you feel bad
mark(feel, in)
fixed(in, order)
He cried in order that you might feel bad
mark(feel, in)
fixed(in, order)
He cried in order for you to have something to feel bad about
mark(have, in)
fixed(in, order)

so as to

John left early so as to miss the meeting
fixed(so, as)
fixed(so, to)
mark(miss, so)

so that

He cried so that you would feel bad
mark(feel, so)
fixed(so, that)

such that

Let the rectangle KL be applied to DE such that KL equals BC
mark(equals, such)
fixed(such, that)

Spatiotemporal markers

in between

John left in/ADP[ExtPos=ADP] between/ADP meetings
fixed(in, between)
case(meetings, in)

prior to

John left prior/ADJ[ExtPos=ADP] to/ADP the meeting
fixed(prior, to)
case(meeting, prior)

on board

on/ADP[ExtPos=ADP] board/NOUN the ship
fixed(on, board)
case(ship, on)

Circumstantial/conditional connectives

in case

I always back up my files in case my computer crashes
fixed(in, case)
mark(crashes, in)
I always back up my files just in case
fixed(in, case)
advmod(back, in)
advmod(in, just)

in case of

I always back up my files in case of a crash
fixed(in, case)
fixed(in, of)
case(crash, in)

whether or not

He 's crying whether or not you feel bad about it
fixed(whether, or)
fixed(whether, not)
mark(feel, whether)

Approximators (quantity modifiers)

more than (when used synonymously with “over” in a quantity)

More than 90 percent
advmod(percent, More)
fixed(More, than)

less than (when used synonymously with “under” in a quantity)

Less than ten percent
advmod(percent, Less)
fixed(Less, than)

up to (when used in quantities)

Up to fifty percent
fixed(Up, to)
advmod(percent, Up)

as many/much/few/little as (when used in quantities)

As much as fifty percent
fixed(As, much)
fixed(As, as)
advmod(percent, As)

all of (when used in quantities)

All of ten minutes
fixed(All, of)
advmod(minutes, All)

Attributional markers

according to

According to John
fixed(According, to)
case(John, According)


such as

I like fluffy animals , such as dogs
case(dogs, such)
fixed(such, as)

Reciprocal Pronouns

The first word is marked as PronType=Rcp. See discussion at PRON.

each other

They saw each/DET other/ADJ
fixed(each, other)
obj(saw, each)

one another

They saw one/PRON another/DET
fixed(one, another)
obj(saw, one)

Pragmatic/miscellaneous markers

all but

John has all/DET but/ADP left
fixed(all, but)
advmod(left, all)

as for

As for me , I love dogs!
fixed(As, for)
case(me, As)
obl(love, me)

as if

It was as if he cried to make you feel bad
fixed(as, if)
mark(cried, as)

as opposed to

John decided to leave early , as opposed to Mary
fixed(as, opposed)
fixed(as, to-9)
case(Mary, as)

as to

As to whether I love dogs ...
fixed(As, to)
mark(love, As)
As to my love of dogs ...
fixed(As, to)
case(love, As)

at least (when not used for quantities)

At/ADP least/ADJ I like dogs
fixed(At, least)
advmod(like, At)

kind of, sort of (as a hedge)

I kind of like dogs
fixed(kind, of)
advmod(like, kind)

in that

I agree in that the food is tasty
fixed(in, that)
mark(tasty, in)
advcl(agree, tasty)

not to mention

This restaurant is pretty cheap with good food , not to mention their friendly staff
fixed(not, to)
fixed(not, mention)
cc(staff, not)
conj(food, staff)

of course

I like dogs , of course
advmod(like, of)
fixed(of, course)

that is

The dogs need to be housebroken -- that is , '' potty - trained ''
fixed(that, is)
advmod(trained, that)

Not fixed

The following are not annotated as fixed, but are instead labeled according to their apparent internal structure.

out of, off of (All double prepositions denoting spatial relations are annotated with two cases on the nominal)

Get out of there !
nmod(Get, there)
case(there, out)
case(there, of)
Get off of that !
nmod(Get, that)
case(that, off)
case(that, of)

by far

Dogs are the best animal by far
nmod(animal, far)
case(far, by)

what about

What about John ?
nmod(What, John)
case(John, about)

at all

I don't like her at all
nmod(like, all)
case(all, at)

at most, at least (when used for quantities. To determine whether at least should be an fixed or not in borderline cases, substitute it with at most; if the sentence remains grammatical, it should receive its surface analysis)

at most 50 percent
nmod(percent, most)
case(most, at)
at least 50 percent
nmod(percent, least)
case(least, at)

at best, at worst

At/ADP best/ADV , they were guesses
nmod(guesses, best)
case(best, At)
At/ADP worst/ADV , they were lies
nmod(lies, worst)
case(worst, At)

what if

What if John left early ?
advcl(What, left)
mark(left, if)

so long

So long , Ham 's ... you will be missed
advmod(long, So)
vocative(long, Ham)
parataxis(long, missed)

nothing but X, anything but X: but is treated as a preposition like except

Harriet eats nothing but tomato sandwiches
nmod(nothing, sandwiches)
case(sandwiches, but)

compared to/with X: compared is treated as a verb

This glass is tall compared to that one
advcl(tall, compared)
obl(compared, one)
case(one, to)

as soon as, as long as (standard comparative analysis; contrast coordinating as well as above)

Let 's leave as soon as it ends .
advmod(leave, soon)
advmod(soon, as-4)
advcl(soon, ends)
mark(ends, as-6)
nsubj(ends, it)

had better (and ‘d better) (issue #803)

You had/AUX better/ADV apologize
aux(apologize, had)
advmod(apologize, better)

about to (issue EWT#430)

We are/AUX about/ADJ to/PART leave
nsubj(about, We)
cop(about, are)
xcomp(about, leave)
mark(leave, to)

fixed in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [eu] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [ka] [ky] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tr] [u]