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This page pertains to UD version 2.

discourse: discourse element

The discourse relation is used for interjections (words tagged INTJ) and other discourse particles or words which are not clearly linked to the syntactic structure of the sentence except in a discursive sense. However, if an interjected element is clausal (including tag questions and words with a sentence-final particle or single words that are verbs or predicate adjectives), it should be given the relation parataxis.

# visual-style 4 1 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	哦	_	INTJ	_	_	4	discourse	_	oh
2	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
3	不過	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	but
4	要	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	require
5	三	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	three
6	年	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	CL:years

1	"Okay,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	but	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	it'll	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	take	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	years."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Some discourse markers appear at the end of an utterance/clause/sentence, but should not be confused with sentence-final particles (discourse:sp) even if there is no pause before it. These include 吓 haa2, 吓嗎 haa6maa2, 吓話 haa6waa2, 呵 ho2.

# visual-style 3 7 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	2SG
2	唔	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	食	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	eat
4	㗎	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP
5	喇	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP
6	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	呵	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse	_	(tag-particle)
8	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	3	punct	_	_

1	"You're	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	eating,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	isn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	so?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Particles 呀 aa3, 呀 aa4, 呢 ne1/le1, 喎 wo3 may occur after a topic in sentence-initial position; these have homophonous counterparts in sentence-final particles but should not be confused with them, and should be labelled discourse rather than discourse:sp.

# visual-style 1 2 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	臭豆腐	_	NOUN	_	_	4	dislocated	_	stinky-tofu
2	呀	_	PART	_	_	1	discourse	_	PART
3	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
4	冇	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	not-exist
5	人	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	person
6	食	_	VERB	_	_	5	acl	_	eat
7	㗎	_	PART	_	_	4	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"Stinky	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	tofu	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	--	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	nobody	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	eats	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	that."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Additionally, 呀 aa3 and 喇 laa1 may be used to offset items in a list. In this case, they should depend on the items that are conjuncts or that form the list, whether these conjuncts are nouns, phrases, or predicates.

# visual-style 3 4 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6 7 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	呢度	_	PRON	_	_	2	obl	_	here
2	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	exist
3	芒果	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	mango
4	喇	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse	_	PART
5	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	6	punct	_	_
6	龍眼	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	longan
7	喇	_	PART	_	_	6	discourse	_	SP
8	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	10	punct	_	_
9	同埋	_	CCONJ	_	_	10	cc	_	and
10	荔枝	_	NOUN	_	_	3	conj	_	lychee

1	"There	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	are	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	mangoes,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	longans,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	lychees	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	here."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

The particle 呢 ne1/le1 can also be used as a hesitation marker.

# visual-style 1 2 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4 5 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	7	nsubj	_	here
2	呢	_	PART	_	_	1	discourse	_	PART
3	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
4	琴日	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obl:tmod	_	yesterday
5	呢	_	PART	_	_	4	discourse	_	PART
6	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
7	見	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	see
8	到	_	VERB	_	_	7	compound:vv	_	arrive
9	隻	_	NOUN	_	_	10	det	_	CL
10	老鼠	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obj	_	mouse
11	呀	_	PART	_	_	7	discourse:sp	_	SP
12	!	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_

1	"I,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	uh...	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	yesterday...	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	saw	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	mouse!"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

References


discourse in other languages: [bej] [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [el] [en] [eu] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hy] [it] [ja] [kk] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [vi] [yue] [zh]