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This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between a subject complement and a copular verb or copular suffix. We always mark copula as dependent of the subject complement.

The main means of forming copular constructions, however, is through the bound morpheme -(y), and (infrequently) its clitic form i-. Since the morpheme -(y) consists only of a “buffer” consonant, in some morphological contexts, it is not realized.

Copular morphemes carry features, e.g., Number, Person, that may conflict with the complement they are attached to. Furthermore, the copular suffixes can also attach to verbal nouns, causing conflicting dependency relations besides more feature conflicts. As a result, all copular markers, exectp the “zero copula”, are considered as separate syntactic tokens.

Güzel idi . (He\/she\/it) was beautiful
cop(Güzel, idi)
Güzel –di . (He\/she\/it) was beautiful
cop(Güzel, –di)
Güzel –im . \n I am beautiful
cop(Güzel, –im)

When an overt subject is present, it is headed by the subject complement (not the copula).

Kitap güzel –di . \n The book was nice\/beautiful 
cop(güzel, –di)
nsubj(güzel, Kitap)

In Turkish, the auxiliary verba ol-, and to a lesser extent, bulun- may act like a copula. currently, they are treated as main verbs rather than copula (see the discussion in specific syntactic constructions).


cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kpv] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]