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This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the nominal predicate and the copular verb быть “to be”. Note that in present tense copula is often omitted. The verbs являться “to be”, становиться “to become”, despite being counted among copular verbs by some authors, is not analyzed as cop.

We normally take a copula as a dependent of its complement (the nominal predicate). The nominal predicate is usually a noun, an adjective or a participle.

Андрей был честным человеком . \n Andrew was an honest man .
cop(человеком, был)
cop(man, was)

The nominal predicate may also be expressed using a prepositional phrase. Phrases expressing the state of the subject are clear predicates, e.g. Я была не в форме “I was out of shape”. Under the v2 guidelines, prepositional phrases expressing locations are also considered predicates, to increase parallelism across languages.

Thus the following sentences receive parallel analyses:

In contrast, the following two sentences are no longer parallel:

Я была не в форме . \n I was out of shape .
cop(форме, была)
cop(shape, was)
case(форме, в)
case(shape, of)
nsubj(форме, Я)
nsubj(shape, I)
Я была на кухне . \n I was in the-kitchen .
cop(кухне, была)
cop(kitchen, was)
case(кухне, на)
case(kitchen, in)
nsubj(кухне, Я)
nsubj(kitchen, I)

cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kpv] [ky] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]