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This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

Warning: DRAFT

A copula verb is a linking verb that joins a subject with a predicate. Copular clauses receive a special treatment. The predicative acts as the head word of the clause, and the copular verb depends on it using a cop (copula) dependency. The cop relation is only applied when the verb is used to link a subject to its predicate (although the subject may be left out).

The full list of copula verbs is as follows:

If the morphological analyser used outputs an е- copula in aorist third person then this is attached as a leaf node.

Бұл ойын <ø . \n It game is .
cop(ойын-2, <ø-3)
nsubj(ойын-2, Бұл-1)
punct(ойын-2, .-4)

If the copula is not third person it has overt person marking:

Мен студент <пін . \n I student am .
cop(студент-2, <пін-3)
nsubj(студент-2, Мен-1)
punct(студент-2, .-4)

In the past it surfaces as еді-:

Бірақ кеше өте суық еді ! \n But yesterday very cold was-it !
advmod(суық-4, өте-3)
cop(суық-4, еді-5)

Use of “бол” without a predicate:

Эрте заманда Эрназар деген киши болуптур . \n Early time-in Ernazar called person was .

Use of “бол” without subject or predicate:

Шылым шегуге болмайды . \n Cigarette smoking is-allowed-not .

Warning: DRAFT

cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kpv] [ky] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]