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This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular heads are avoided when possible.

In Komi-Zyrian the copula is represented by the independent copulas вӧвны (preterit) and лоны (future). There is no copula in an affirmative declarative sentence in the present tense. See:

Ме велӧдысь . \n I'm a teacher .
nsubj(велӧдысь, Ме)

However, particle абу is used in a negative declarative sentence in the present.

Ме абу велӧдысь . \n  I'm not a teacher .
nsubj(велӧдысь-3, Ме-1)
advmod(велӧдысь-3, абу-2)

In the preterite and future tenses the copula is obligatory.

Ме лоа велӧдысь . \n  I will be a teacher .
nsubj(велӧдысь, Ме)
cop(велӧдысь, лоа)

The structures are identical, but the verb used as copula is different.

Ме вӧлі велӧдысь . \n  I was a teacher .
nsubj(велӧдысь-3, Ме-1)
cop(велӧдысь-3, вӧлі-2)

In the negative declarative sentences the negation verb is used, as normally in Komi with verbs.

Ме эг вӧв велӧдысь . \n  I wasn't a teacher .
nsubj(велӧдысь-4, Ме-1)
aux(велӧдысь-4, эг-2)
cop(велӧдысь-4, вӧв-3)
Ме ог ло велӧдысь . \n  I will not be a teacher .
nsubj(велӧдысь-4, Ме-1)
aux(велӧдысь-4, ог-2)
cop(велӧдысь-4, ло-3)

In locative and existential predication negative particle абу is also used:

Менам абу кань .
obl(кань, Менам)
advmod(кань, абу)

This corresponds to particle эм, used in existential predication:

Менам абу кань . \n I don't have a cat .
obl(кань, Менам)
advmod(кань, абу)
Менам эм кань . \n I have a cat .
obl(кань, Менам)
advmod(кань, эм)

These particles also have plural forms эмӧсь and абуӧсь, which makes other analyses besides a particle also worth considering:

Менам эмӧсь каньяс . \n I have cats .
obl(каньяс, Менам)
advmod(каньяс, эмӧсь)

cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kpv] [ky] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]