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This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular heads are avoided when possible.

ROOT Hettar er ein royndar setningur . \n This is a random sentence .
root(ROOT, setningur)
cop(setningur, er)
nsubj(setningur, Hettar)
amod(setningur, royndar)
det(setningur, ein)
punct(setningur, .)

Prepositional phrases are annotated similarly, the only difference being that the nominal predicate has an additional case marker.

Hon er frá Føroyum . \n She is from the.Faroes .
case(Føroyum, frá)
cop(Føroyum, er)
nsubj(Føroyum, Hon)
punct(Føroyum, .)

When an adjective or adverb is being predicated of a nominal phrase, the adjective/adverb is the root, the nominal phrase is the nsubj, and the copula is attached to the root with the cop relation.

Hon er sterk . \n She is strong .
nsubj(sterk, Hon)
cop(sterk, er)
punct(sterk, .)
Hettar var í gjár . \n It was in yesterday .
nsubj(gjár, Hettar)
cop(gjár, var)
case(gjár, í)
punct(gjár, .)

Prepositions may also project a cop dependent.

Ljósið er frá . \n The light is on .
cop(frá, er)
nsubj(frá, Ljósið)
punct(frá, .)

In predicative wh-constructions, the fronted wh-word is the head, and the copula is another cop.

Hvat er hattar ? \n What is that ?
cop(Hvat, er)
nsubj(Hvat, hattar)
punct(Hvat, ?)

cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kpv] [ky] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]