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This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular heads are avoided when possible.

In Erzya the copula is represented by the independent copulas ульнемс (preterit) and улемс (non-past), and the dependent morphology -оль (both preterit and non-past). In locative and existential predication there is also a negative `арась’.

Кечай вадря ульнесь цёрынесь . \n Kechai good was that_boy .
cop(вадря-2, ульнесь-3)
nsubj(вадря-2, Кечай-1)
dislocated(Кечай-1, цёрынесь-4)

The same can be expressed with dependent morphology. The first preterit is used here because third person singular present would be a zero.

Кечай вадря -ль цёрынесь . \n Kechai good_was that_boy .
cop(вадря-2, ль-3)
nsubj(вадря-2, Кечай-1)
dislocated(Кечай-1, цёрынесь-4)

cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kpv] [ky] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]