home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular heads are avoided when possible.

Bill är en ärlig man \n Bill is an honest man
cop(man-5, är)
nsubj(man-5, Bill-1)
amod(man-5, ärlig)
det(man-5, en)

Prepositional phrases are annotated similarly, the only difference being that the nominal predicate has an additional case marker.

Bill är från Kalifornien \n Bill is from California
case(Kalifornien, från)
cop(Kalifornien, är)
nsubj(Kalifornien, Bill-1)

When an adjective or adverb is being predicated of a nominal phrase, the adjective/adverb is the root, the nominal phrase is the nsubj, and the copula is the cop.

Bill är ärlig \n Bill is honest
nsubj(ärlig, Bill-1)
cop(ärlig, är)
Det var igår \n It was yesterday
nsubj(igår, Det)
cop(igår, var)

Prepositions may also project a cop dependent.

Ljuset är på \n The light is on
cop(på, är)
nsubj(på, Ljuset)

In predicative wh-constructions, the fronted wh-word is the head, and the copula is another cop.

Vad är det ? \n What is that ?
cop(Vad, är)
nsubj(Vad, det)

cop in other languages: [bej] [bg] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kpv] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]