home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

flat: flat nominal structure

flat is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and fixed). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. For example, flat would be used between the words of Hillary Clinton, Rio de Janeiro, or Dom Pedro I but not to replace the usual relations in a phrasal or clausal name like O rei da Suécia or the novels O senhor dos anéis. Words joined by flat should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise regular syntactic relations should be used. This is basically similar to the treatment of noun compounds with compound, except that in many cases parts of the name may be another nominal element such as an adjective (Páginas Amarelas).

In general, names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the flat label.

Dom Pedro I
flat(Dom-1, I-3)
flat(Dom-1, Pedro-2)

For organization names with clear syntactic modification structure, the dependencies should reflect the syntactic modification structure using regular syntactic relation, as in:.

Procuradoria Geral da República
amod(Procuradoria, Geral)
compound(Procuradoria, República)

In addition, regular syntactic relations are used: (i) for a modifying determiner or (ii) to connect together the words of a description or name which involve embedded prepositional phrases, sentences, etc.

os Estados Unidos
det(Estados, os)
Miguel de Cervantes
flat(Miguel, Cervantes)
case(Cervantes, de)
O rei de a Suécia
det(rei-2, O-1)
nmod(rei-2, Suécia-4)
case(Suécia-4, de-3)
Rio de Janeiro
case(Janeiro, de)
nmod(Rio, Janeiro)

In the case of proper entities named after people, e.g. Fundação Getúlio Vargas, the flat relation should only be used inside the person name, with the rest of the construction analyzed compositionally using normal syntactic relations:

Fundação Getúlio Vargas
compound(Fundação, Getúlio)
flat(Getúlio, Vargas)

flat in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [et] [eu] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hy] [it] [kk] [pcm] [pt] [ru] [swl] [tr] [u] [yue] [zh]