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This page pertains to UD version 2.

flat: flat

flat is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and fixed). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. For example, flat would be used between the words of Hillary Rodham Clinton, New York, or Carl XVI Gustaf but not to replace the usual relations in a phrasal or clausal name like The king of Sweden or the novels The Lord of the Rings and Captured By Aliens. Words joined by flat should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise regular syntactic relations should be used. This is basically similar to the treatment of noun compounds with compound, except that in many cases parts of the name may be another nominal element such as an adjective (United Airlines).

In general, names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the flat label.

Carl XVI Gustaf
flat(Carl-1, Gustaf-3)
flat(Carl-1, XVI-2)

For organization names with clear syntactic modification structure, the dependencies should reflect the syntactic modification structure using regular syntactic relation, as in:.

Natural Resources Conservation Service
amod(Resources-2, Natural-1)
compound(Conservation-3, Resources-2)
compound(Service-4, Conservation-3)

In addition, regular syntactic relations are used: (i) for a modifying English determiner or (ii) to connect together the words of a description or name which involve English embedded prepositional phrases, sentences, etc.

The king of Sweden
det(king-2, The-1)
nmod(king-2, Sweden-4)
case(Sweden-4, of-3)

If a name contains a function word in another language than English, we also use the flat relation.

Río de la Plata
flat(Río-1, de-2)
flat(Río-1, la-3)
flat(Río-1, Plata-4)
Ludwig van Beethoven
flat(Ludwig, van)
flat(Ludwig, Beethoven)

Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra
flat(Miguel, de)
flat(Miguel, Cervantes)
flat(Miguel, y)
flat(Miguel, Saavedra)
San Francisco
flat(San, Francisco)

flat in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [et] [eu] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hy] [it] [kk] [pcm] [pt] [ru] [swl] [tr] [u] [yue] [zh]