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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Cantonese HK

Language: Cantonese (code: yue)
Family: Sino-Tibetan

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.1 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Kim Gerdes, John Lee, Herman Leung, Tak-sum Wong.

Repository: UD_Cantonese-HK
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: spoken

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Cantonese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [tswong-c (æt) my • cityu • edu • hk; jsylee (æt) cityu • edu • hk]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas assigned by a program, not checked manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


A Cantonese treebank (in Traditional Chinese characters) of film subtitles and of legislative proceedings of Hong Kong, parallel with the Chinese-HK treebank.

The Cantonese-HK UD treebank was manually annotated by Tak-sum Wong and Herman H. M. Leung at City University of Hong Kong, by finely transcribing three films shooted by students from the School of Creative Media as well as part of the section of the Election of President of the council meeting of the Legislative Council of the HKSAR of the P. R. China on 12th October, 2016 commencing at 2:13 p.m. The data are in Traditional Chinese. These trees form a parallel treebank with those in Chinese-HK.



This work was partially supported by a grant from the PROCORE-France/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme sponsored by the Research Grants Council and the Consulate General of France in Hong Kong (Reference No.: F-CityU107/15 and N 35322RG); and by two Strategic Research Grants (Project No. 7004494 and No. 7004736) from City University of Hong Kong.

Statistics of UD Cantonese HK

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview