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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Slovenian SSJ

Language: Slovenian (code: sl)
Family: Indo-European, Slavic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Kaja Dobrovoljc, Tomaž Erjavec, Simon Krek.

Repository: UD_Slovenian-SSJ
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: news, nonfiction, fiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Slovenian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [kaja • dobrovoljc (æt) ijs • si]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion


The SSJ treebank is the reference UD treebank for Slovenian, consisting of approximately 13,000 sentences and 267,097 tokens from fiction, non-fiction, periodical and Wikipedia texts in standard modern Slovenian. As of UD release 2.10 in May 2022, the original version of the SSJ UD treebank has been partially manually revised and extended with new manually annotated data.

The original Slovenian SSJ UD Treebank, first released as part of UD v1.2 in 2015 (Dobrovoljc et al. 2017), was created through a fine-grained rule-based conversion of the ssj500k treebank (Krek et al. 2021), the largest collection of manually syntactically annotated data in Slovenian, originally annotated in the JOS annotation scheme (Erjavec et al. 2010). With the exception of the manual disambiguation of the AUX and VERB occurrences of the verb ‘biti’ (to be), the conversion was fully automatic, based on a set of rules for both morphosyntactic and syntactic layer, which include different lexical, morphological and dependency features, while the original ssj500k tokenization and lemmatization principles remained unchanged. The rules and conversion scripts are available at https://github.com/clarinsi/jos2ud.

In 2022, the original SSJ UD treebank was partially manually revised to correct the previously identified annotation inconsistencies, and implement the newly introduced changes in the annotation guidelines. In addition, the treebank was substantially extended to almost double the original size, with new manually annotated sentences coming from the previously unreleased subset of the ssj500k corpus, and the Slovenian subset of the ELEXIS parallel sense-annotated corpus of Wikipedia texts (Martelli et al. 2021). Despite the extension, the data split remained unchanged with the original SSJ sentences being preserved as part of the same train-dev-test subset. More details on the latest SSJ UD version are given in Dobrovoljc and Ljubešić (2022).


We wish to thank all of the contributors to the original ssj500k training corpus (Kristina Bizjak, Živa Blaževič, Klara Canzutti, Lea Cibrič, Kaja Dobrovoljc, Tadeja Dušej, Tomaž Erjavec, Ivana Fekeža, Nanika Holz, Urška Kamenšek, Simon Krek, Andreja Košir, Robert Kuret, Nina Ledinek, Andrej Lovšin, Boštjan Marhold, Nina Mikulin, Barbara Modrijan, Sara Može, Tanja Novak, Lea Peršič, Tanja Radovič, Simona Šinkovec, Urška Vranjek, Jerneja Umer, Petra Žalodec), and the annotators within the Development of Slovene in the Digital Environment project (Tina Munda, Ina Poteko, Rebeka Roblek, Luka Terčon and Karolina Zgaga).

Key references


Statistics of UD Slovenian SSJ

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview