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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Classical Chinese TueCL

Language: Classical Chinese (code: lzh)
Family: Sino-Tibetan

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.14 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Yifei Chen, John Wang, Çağrı Çöltekin.

Repository: UD_Classical_Chinese-TueCL
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: fiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Classical Chinese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [yifei • chen (æt) student • uni-tuebingen • de,johnz • wang (æt) outlook • com,cagri • coeltekin (æt) uni-tuebingen • de]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


A dependency Treebank of “逍遥游(Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease)” written by Zhuangzi.

Full text of the source is available at: https://chinesenotes.com/zhuangzi/zhuangzi001.html (in both EN&CN), and translation to modern Chinese is available at https://so.gushiwen.cn/shiwenv_5bfecbe60620.aspx (or http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/zhuangzi.html).



Statistics of UD Classical Chinese TueCL

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview