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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Abkhaz

Tokenization and Word Segmentation





The morphological features are automatically derived from the feature set used in the AbNC, which is a proprietary feature set containing some features that are difficult to translate to UD features and thus are omitted as yet.

Nominal Features

Verbal Features

Person, Number and Gender are marked in the verb for a variety of syntactic functions. Since Abkhaz has no case marking the features are qualified by those syntactic functions, which are:

The following verbal features are used:

The Perfect tense, Prf is a tense on its own and not equal to Aspect=Perf, since other tenses (Aor) may have perfective aspect.

There are two Conditional tenses, Cnd, Cnd2, and two Conditional moods Cnd, Cnd2 that combine with tenses.


Cardinal numbers in Abkhaz can optionally be prefixed to a noun. In such cases, the noun has the feature Number: Card.

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

(To be added.)

Other Features


Abkhaz is a polysynthetic, head-marking language; all core arguments (subject, direct, indirect, locational, relational objects, causee), in addition to inner reflexives and reciprocals, are cross-referenced in the verb by prefixes. The language is morphologically ergative, which is apparent from the function of the argument prefixes (e.g., the column-I prefix marks the subject in intransitive verbs, but the direct object in transitive verbs). Case-marking is lacking, but the prefixes agree in person, number, gender and animacy with their arguments.

There are four argument-changing alterations a verb can undergo: passive, causative, potentialis and involuntative.

Passive and causative behave as expected. The potentialis alteration, introduced by the potential marker -з-, changes the subject of a transitive verb into a potential object (po), whereas the direct object becomes the subject. Example: и-ҟа-сы-м-ҵе-ит (do:3-PV-subj:1sg-Neg-ROOT-Aor) I did not do it vs. и-с-зы-ҟа-м-ҵе-ит (subj:3-po:1sg-POT-PV-Neg-ROOT-Aor) I could not do it. In intransitive verbs, no arguments are changed.

The involuntative, marked by -амха-, behaves in the same way. It describes an action that happens inadvertently, unintentionally: и-с-амха-фе-ит (subj:3-po:1sg-INVOL-ROOT-Aor) I ate it by accident/mistake.

Relations Overview


There is one Abkhaz UD treebank: