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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Tswana Popapolelo

Language: Tswana (code: tn)
Family: Niger-Congo, Bantoid

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.14 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Ansu Berg, Roald Eiselen, Tanja Gaustad, Rigardt Pretorius.

Repository: UD_Tswana-Popapolelo
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: grammar-examples

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Tswana-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [tanja • gaustad (æt) nwu • ac • za]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas not available
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
Features assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


UD Tswana-Popapolelo is a translation of the 20 Cairo Cicling sentences (https://github.com/UniversalDependencies/cairo) annotated with XPOS, UPOS and dependency relations.

There are 20 translated sentences with a total of 234 tokens.

The entire treebank is labeled as test set due to its size. If it is used for training in future research, the users should employ ten-fold cross-validation.


Translations and initial annotations performed by Ansu Berg, Rigardt Pretorius, Kevin Mavalela, and Kaboentle Maibi.

Statistics of UD Tswana Popapolelo

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview