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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Japanese GSD

Language: Japanese (code: ja)
Family: Japanese

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.4 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Mai Omura, Yusuke Miyao, Hiroshi Kanayama, Hiroshi Matsuda, Aya Wakasa, Kayo Yamashita, Masayuki Asahara, Takaaki Tanaka, Yugo Murawaki, Yuji Matsumoto, Shinsuke Mori, Sumire Uematsu, Ryan McDonald, Joakim Nivre, Daniel Zeman.

Repository: UD_Japanese-GSD
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: news, blog

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Japanese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [hkana (æt) jp • ibm • com]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features not available
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This Universal Dependencies (UD) Japanese treebank is based on the definition of UD Japanese convention described in the UD documentation. The original sentences are from Google UDT 2.0.

The Japanese UD treebank contains the sentences from Google Universal Dependency Treebanks v2.0 (legacy): https://github.com/ryanmcd/uni-dep-tb. First, Google UDT v2.0 was converted to UD-style with bunsetsu-based word units (say “master” corpus).

The word units in “master” is significantly different from the definition of the documents based on Short Unit Word (SUW) [1], then the sentences are automatically re-processed by Hiroshi Kanayama in Feb 2017. It is the Japanese_UD v2.0 and used in the CoNLL 2017 shared task. In November 2017, UD_Japanese v2.0 is merged with the “master” data so that the manual annotations for dependencies can be reflected to the corpus. It reduced the errors in the dependency structures and relation labels.

Still there are slight differences in the word unit between UD_Japanese v2.1 and UD_Japanese-KTC 1.3.

In May 2020, we introduce UD_Japanese BCCWJ[3] like coversion method for UD_Japanese GSD v2.6.


The original treebank was provided by:


The corpus was converted by:

through annotation, discussion and validation with

Statistics of UD Japanese GSD

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview