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This page pertains to UD version 2.

root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node ROOT is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with 0, since the indexing of real words in the sentence starts at 1.

ROOT Люблю индийскую еду . \n ROOT I-love Indian food .
root(ROOT-1, Люблю)
root(ROOT-7, I-love)

There is just one node with the root dependency relation in every tree. If the main predicate is not present (due to ellipsis) and there are multiple orphaned dependents, the leftmost dependent is promoted to the head (root) position and the other orphans are attached to it.

An example sentence-like segment that lacks the main verb: И что он на это ? “And what [does] he [say] to it?”

ROOT И что он на это ? \n ROOT And what he to it ?
root(ROOT-1, И)
root(ROOT-9, And)
obj(И, что)
obj(And, what)
nmod(И, это)
nmod(And, it)
case(это, на)
case(it, to)
nsubj(И, он)
nsubj(And, he)
punct(И, ?-7)
punct(And, ?-15)

root in other languages: [bej] [bm] [cop] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hy] [it] [kk] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [yue] [zh]