home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A dummy node “ROOT” is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indices of real words in the sentence start at 1.

Examples

thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad `Payments are not made if they are not requested’

ROOT Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad \n ROOT Not given payments if_not requested them 
root(ROOT, thugtar)

Copular constructions

Copular constructions in Irish follow the copula-predicate-subject pattern, wherein the predicate is the root (see the example below).

Is cuntas réasúnta é sa mhórchuid. `It’s a reasonable account, for the most part’

ROOT Is cuntas réasúnta é sa mhórchuid. \n ROOT Is account reasonable it in_the big_part 
root(ROOT, cuntas)

However, in some copular constructions, the copula and the root may be more distant from one another and separated by an emphatic nominal, as in this case:

Is í an bhean cruthaitheóir agus cosantóir na beatha. `The woman is the creator and defender of life.’

ROOT Is í an bhean cruthaitheóir agus cosantóir na beatha. \n ROOT Is her the woman creator and defender of_the life.  
root(ROOT, bhean)

Where the pleonastic conjunction ‘’ occurs, the subject is fronted and the predicate appears clause-finally introduced by ‘’. This conjunction allows for the re-ordering of the COP-PRED-SUBJ structure. Therefore, the root and the cop are separated from one other by the subject of the copular phrase.

Is í an obair a bheadh le déanamh ná ‘aghaidh a thabhairt ar pholaitiú agus ar bharbarú an domhain’. The work that would have to be done would be to address the politicisation and violent nature of the world.

ROOT Is í an obair a bheadh le déanamh ná 'aghaidh a thabhairt ar pholaitiú agus ar bharbarú an domhain'. \n ROOT Is it(fem) the work that would_be to doing [] face to giving on politicising and on violence of_the world.  
root(ROOT, thabhairt)
obj(thabhairt, 'aghaidh)
cop(thabhairt, Is)

Contracted copula forms (where the copula and the predicate are combined) are also labelled root.

‘Sé seo an chéad duine riamh do chonaic na hógaibh go raibh spéaclaí air. ‘He is the first person the young people had ever seen wearing glasses’

ROOT 'Sé seo an chéad duine riamh do chonaic na hógaibh go raibh spéaclaí air. \n ROOT Is_he this the first person ever that did_see the young_people that were spectacles on_him.  
root(ROOT, 'Sé)
nsubj('Sé, duine)

Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns that predicate copular phrases are also labelled as the root.

Seo an fear a chonaic an bád. ‘This is the man who saw the boat.’

ROOT Seo an fear a chonaic an bád. \n ROOT Is_this the man who did_see the boat.
root(ROOT, Seo)
nsubj(Seo, fear)
acl:relcl(fear, chonaic)
nsubj(chonaic, a)

Sin an gort a cuireadh an síol ann. ‘That’s the field where the seed was sown.’

ROOT Sin an gort a cuireadh an síol ann . \n ROOT Is_that the field in_which was_put the seed in_it .
root(ROOT, Sin)
nsubj(Sin, gort)
acl:relcl(gort, cuireadh)
obl(cuireadh, a)
obl:prep(cuireadh, ann)

Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronoun cén (a contraction of cad é an, lit. ‘which one’) is raised to root-level when it occurs at the beginning of a sentence, as shown below. It is usually followed by a relativised noun, a closed clausal complement (ccomp).

Cén chaoi a ndéantar measúnú ar obair chliniciúil, shaotharlainne agus phraiticiúil eile? `How is the other clinical, laboratory and practical work assessed?

ROOT Cén chaoi a ndéantar measúnú ar obair chliniciúil, shaotharlainne agus phraiticiúil eile ? \n ROOT Which_one way in_which is_done assessment on work clinical, laboratory and practical other ?  
root(ROOT, Cén)
nsubj(Cén, chaoi)
obl(ndéantar, a)
acl:relcl(chaoi, ndéantar)

Cén fáth gur thug sí geallúint shoiléir do na tuistí agus ansin gur bhris sí an gheallúint? `Why did she make a clear promise to parents only to break it?

ROOT Cén fáth gur thug sí geallúint shoiléir do na tuistí agus ansin gur bhris sí an gheallúint ? \n ROOT Which_one reason that(PAST) gave she promise clear to the parents and then that(PAST) broke she the promise ?   
root(ROOT, Cén)
nsubj(Cén, fáth)
ccomp(fáth, thug)

It can also be the predicate of a copular phrase.

Cén sórt comhairle í? `What kind of advice is it?

ROOT Cén sórt comhairle í ? \n ROOT Which kind of_advice it(fem) ? 
root(ROOT, Cén)
nsubj(Cén, sórt)
nmod(sórt, comhairle)
nmod(sórt, í)

The interrogative pronoun (lit. who, whom) is raised to predicate level when followed by a noun.

leis an teach? `Who owns the house?

ROOT Cé leis an teach ? \n ROOT Who with_it the house ?
root(ROOT, Cé)
obl:prep(Cé, leis)
case(teach, an)
nsubj(Cé, teach)

However, is treated as the fronted subject/oblique when followed by a verb. Note that the verb particle ‘a’ is labelled mark:prtin instances like those shown below.

Cé a labhair? `Who spoke?

ROOT Cé a labhair ? \n ROOT Who with_it the house ?
root(ROOT, labhair)
nsubj(labhair, Cé)
mark:prt(labhair, a)

Cé leis a dtiocfaidh a rá go bhfuil… `Who can say that…

ROOT Cé leis a dtiocfaidh a rá go bhfuil ? \n ROOT Who with_it [] will_come to say that is ?
root(ROOT, dtiocfaidh)
nsubj(dtiocfaidh, Cé)
obl:prep(Cé, leis)
mark:prt(dtiocfaidh, a)

root in other languages: [bej] [bm] [cop] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hy] [it] [kk] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [yue] [zh]