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This page pertains to UD version 2.

orphan: orphan

The orphan relation is used to provide a satisfactory treatment of ellipsis (in the case of gapping and stripping, where a predicational or verbal head gets elided) without having to postulate empty nodes in the basic representation.

Ich kaufe das Essen und du die Getränke \n I buy the food and you the drinks

nsubj(kaufe-2, Ich-1)
det(Essen-4, das-3)
obj(kaufe-2, Essen-4)
conj(kaufe-2, du-6)
cc(du-6, und-5)
det(Getränke-8, die-7)
orphan(du-6, Getränke-8)

If the head nominal is elided, we promote dependents in the following order: amod > nummod > det > nmod > case.

Er kauft sich ein grünes Auto und sie kauft sich ein rotes . \n He buys himself a green car and she buys herself a red .

nsubj(kauft-2, Er-1)
det(Auto-6, ein-4)
iobj(kauft-2, sich-3)
amod(Auto-6, grünes-5)
obj(kauft-2, Auto-6)
conj(kauft-2, kauft-9)
cc(kauft-9, und-7)
nsubj(kauft-9, sie-8)
obj(kauft-9, rotes-12)
iobj(kauft-9, sich-10)
det(rotes-12, ein-11)

orphan in other languages: [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [fi] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [it] [ja] [kk] [kpv] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [yue] [zh]