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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Chinese Beginner

Language: Chinese (code: zh)
Family: Sino-Tibetan

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.13 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Kirian Guiller, Yidi Huang, Yixuan Li, Qishen Wu, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Kim Gerdes.

Repository: UD_Chinese-Beginner
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: grammar-examples

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Chinese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [kiriangui (æt) gmail • com]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


A treebank of Chinese sentences adapted for learner of level A1 to C1 (HSK1 to 5) collected on the Chinese Grammar Wiki (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 License) website. The treebank was manually annotated by researchers of Paris Nanterre University (Modyco) in the mSUD annotation schema (morpheme level Surface Universal Dependencies).

The syntactic analysis is originally done in SUD on the character level under the name SUD_Chinese-PatentChar. See SUD Guidelines : https://surfacesyntacticud.github.io/guidelines/u/

Structure of the Treebank

The Treebank is partitioned in 5 parts A1, A2, B1, B2 and C1 that represents different level of difficulty (from easiest to hardest).

/!\ At the day of October 12th of 2023, 2295 sentences have been hand annotated (around 20k tokens in total). But below is the complete distribution of the corpus when it will be finished.

The corpus is made of around 4300 sentences, with the following distribution :

Data Split

The treebank is still being annotated and around 40% of the sentences are yet to be annotated or validated. Therefore, the current version is not representative of the final distribution which prevent us for doing a representative data split that would be stable across release (see UD data split guidelines). Until the treebank is fully annotated, we will not split the data and release all sentences in a single test folder. Please perform 10 fold cross validation if you are using this treebank for any machine learning task.

Structure of a sentence

Here an example of the meta data that each sentences contains : ```


This annotation work is supported by the Autogramm project and rely on the extensive work done by AllSetLearning contributors to the Chinese Grammar wiki.


Statistics of UD Chinese Beginner

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview