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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Tense: tense

Kyrgyz has a complex tense/aspect/modality system.

Kyrgyz verbs can indicate actions in the present, past or future. Complex tenses for actions that happened before, during, or after a past event can also be specified by suffixation. The actions that happen before, during, or after a future event are expressed using an auxiliary.

The verbs expressing actions that happened before a reference in the past are marked with value Pqp. For events that happen during the past reference, we use Tense=Past with proper progressive (Prog) or habitual (Hab) Aspect.

Past: past tense

Kyrgyz past tense is realized with -ты or -ген or эле suffixes on verbal predicates. The difference between the -ты and -ген forms are related to evidentiality (Evident) rather than Tense. Both morphemes refer to a (completed) past event.

These suffixes also combine with others to refer to time relative to a past event, which will be discussed below.


Fut: future tense

Kyrgyz future tense is expressed with same present tense . Copular predicates cannot directly take future Tense morphemes.


Pres: present tense

The present tense in Kyrgyz is realized by lack of past or future morphemes. If the action continues, the жатат suffix is used.


The differences between these forms are Aspect and Mood differences.

Tense in other languages: [ab] [abq] [aqz] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [cs] [cy] [el] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gn] [gub] [ha] [hu] [hy] [it] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [pcm] [qpm] [ru] [sah] [say] [sl] [sv] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]