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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Universal features

For core part-of-speech categories, see the universal POS tags. The features listed here distinguish additional lexical and grammatical properties of words, not covered by the POS tags.

Lexical features* Inflectional features*
Nominal* Verbal*
PronType Gender VerbForm
NumType Animacy Mood
Poss NounClass Tense
Reflex Number Aspect
Foreign Case Voice
Abbr Definite Evident
Typo Deixis Polarity
DeixisRef Person
Degree Polite
  Index: A abbreviation, abessive, ablative, above, absolute superlative, absolutive, accusative, active, actor-focus voice, additive, adelative, adessive, adlative, admirative, adverbial participle, affirmative, allative, animate, antipassive, aorist, article, aspect, associative, augmentative, B bantu noun class, below, benefactive, beneficiary-focus voice, C cardinal, caritive, case, causative case, causative voice, clusivity, collective noun, collective numeral, collective pronominal, comitative, common gender, comparative case, comparative degree, complex definiteness, conditional, conjunctive, considerative, construct state, converb, count plural, counting form, D dative, definite, definiteness, degree of comparison, deixis, deixis reference person, delative, demonstrative, desiderative, destinative, diminutive, direct case, direct voice, directional allative, distal, distributive case, distributive numeral, dual, E elative, elevated referent, emphatic, equative case, equative degree, ergative, essive, even, evidentiality, exclamative, exclusive, F factive, feminine, finite verb, first person, firsthand, foreign word, formal, fourth person, fraction, frequentative, future, G gender, genitive, gerund, gerundive, greater paucal, greater plural, H habitual, human, humbled speaker, I illative, imperative, imperfect tense, imperfective aspect, inanimate, inclusive, indefinite, indefinite pronominal, indicative, inelative, inessive, infinitive, informal, injunctive, inlative, instructive, instrumental, interrogative mood, interrogative pronominal, inverse number, inverse voice, irrealis, iterative, J jussive, L lative, location-focus voice, locative, M masculine, masdar, mass noun, medial, middle voice, modality, mood, motivative, multiplicative numeral, N narrative, necessitative, negative polarity, negative pronominal, neuter, nominative, non-finite verb, non-firsthand, non-human, non-past, non-specific indefinite, not visible, noun class, number, numeral type, O oblique case, optative, ordinal, P participle, partitive, passive, past, past perfect, patient-focus voice, paucal, perfective aspect, perlative, person, personal, pluperfect, plural, plurale tantum, polarity, politeness, positive degree, positive polarity, possessive, potential, present, preterite, privative, progressive, prolative, pronominal type, prospective, proximate, purposive case, purposive mood, Q quantifier, quantitative plural, quotative, R range numeral, realis, reciprocal pronominal, reciprocal voice, reduced definiteness, reflexive, register, relative, remote, S second person, set numeral, singular, singulare tantum, specific indefinite, subelative, subessive, subjunctive, sublative, superelative, superessive, superlative case, superlative degree, supine, T temporal, tense, terminal allative, terminative, third person, total, transgressive, translative, trial, typo, U uter, V verb form, verbal adjective, verbal adverb, verbal noun, vocative, voice, Z zero person
* The labels Nominal and Verbal are used as approximate categories only. There is no universal rule that a particular feature can only occur with verbs or nominals (although language-specific rules may define such constraints). Even the boundary between lexical and inflectional features is sometimes blurred: for example, gender is a lexical feature of nouns but an inflectional feature of adjectives or verbs.

This page lists features that have been acknowledged as “universal” in the universal part of the UD guidelines. This does not mean that they occur in all languages. It means that they have been attested in more than one language and they are considered linguistically important. UD treebanks may use additional features and values if they are properly documented. Typically, they are described in language-specific UD documentation, although some non-universal features may also have globally accessible description pages.