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This page pertains to UD version 2.

aux:pass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary (essere/venire) of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which conveys information about the passive voice.

L' escursione era guidata da Castiglioni
aux:pass(guidata, era)
Le norme sono determinate da leggi speciali
aux:pass(determinate, sono)

Sometimes the verb essere to be can be substituted by other verbs that assume the same function, like andare (to go) and venire (to come).

Andare is used both to express a very strong need (see the first example below), or for passive progressive forms with an impersonal value.

I programmi vanno coordinati .
aux:pass(vanno, coordinati)
Il documento è andato perduto .
aux:pass(perduto, andato)
aux(perduto, è)

Venire is used as aux:pass to clearly express the passive information when the main verb is ambiguous: some verbs, like lavare to wash, with essere as auxiliary might seem a description of a property rather than passice forms, while with venire the passive construction is evident (la finestra è lavata vs la finestra viene lavata [da qualcuno]). Note in fact that venire is only used for simple tenses, because in past tenses the passive action is expressed by the participle (see the next section for how to annotate it).

Quando venne costruito il Titanic ?
aux:pass(costruito, venne)
Cosa viene prodotto da la Oracle ?
aux:pass(prodotto, viene)
La sua immagine viene liquidata
aux:pass(liquidata, viene)

Note that periphrastic tenses in passive constructions are marked as follows, by distinguishing between the passive auxiliary (i.e. that immediately preceding the verbal head) which is marked as aux:pass and the tense auxiliaries (the preceding ones) which are marked as aux.

è stato trovato
aux:pass(trovato, stato)
aux(trovato, è)
potrebbe essere stato trovato
aux:pass(trovato, stato)
aux(trovato, essere)
aux(trovato, potrebbe)

aux:pass in other languages: [cs] [de] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [gd] [gsw] [it] [no] [pa] [pt] [qpm] [ro] [ru] [sv] [u] [vi] [yue] [zh]