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Case: case

The feature Case is used for the following Ancient Greek PoS: ADJ, DET, NOUN, NUM, PRON, PROPN, VERB (only with participles). In oder to get a detailed overview on how case is realized in Ancient Greek, see Smyth’s Grammar (189-340; 347-354).

In Ancient Greek we distinguish the following 5 cases:

Nom: nominative

Gen: genitive

Dat: dative

Acc: accusative

Voc: vocative

Remants of old cases, such as the locative, are annotated as the corresponding syncretic case or as adverbs.


Treebank Statistics (UD_Ancient_Greek)

This feature is universal. It occurs with 5 different values: Acc, Dat, Gen, Nom, Voc.

117254 tokens (48%) have a non-empty value of Case. 32044 types (66%) occur at least once with a non-empty value of Case. 12819 lemmas (83%) occur at least once with a non-empty value of Case. The feature is used with 7 part-of-speech tags: grc-pos/NOUN (45893; 19% instances), grc-pos/ADJ (25535; 10% instances), grc-pos/DET (16933; 7% instances), grc-pos/PRON (15571; 6% instances), grc-pos/VERB (13308; 5% instances), grc-pos/NUM (13; 0% instances), grc-pos/ADP (1; 0% instances).

NOUN

45893 grc-pos/NOUN tokens (100% of all NOUN tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which NOUN and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (30959; 67%).

NOUN tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm πόλιςNomAccDatGenVoc
Number=Singπόλις, πτόλις, πόλειπόλιν, πτόλινπόλει, πόλι, πτόλειπόλεως, πόλιος, πόληος, πτόλιοςπόλι
Number=Dualπόλει
Number=Plurπόλεις, πόλιεςπόλεις, πόλις, πόλιας, πόληαςπόλεσιν, πόλεσι, πολίεσσι, πόλεις, πόλισιπόλεων, πόλεών, πολίων

ADJ

25535 grc-pos/ADJ tokens (99% of all ADJ tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which ADJ and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (15471; 61%).

ADJ tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm πᾶςNomAccDatGenVoc
Gender=Masc|Number=Singπᾶςπάντα, πάντ̓, πᾶσαν, [πάνταπαντὶ, παντίπαντὸς, παντός
Gender=Masc|Number=Plurπάντεςπάντας, πάσαςπᾶσι, πᾶσιν, πάντεσσι, πάντεσσιν, πᾶσίνπάντωνπάντες
Gender=Fem|Number=Singπᾶσα, πᾶσ̓, πᾶσά, πᾶνπᾶσαν, πᾶν, πάσαςπάσῃ, πάσαιςπάσης, πάσας
Gender=Fem|Number=Plurπᾶσαιπάσας, πάνταπάσαις, πάσῃσι, πάσῃσινπασέων, πασῶν, πάντων, πασᾶν
Gender=Neutπάντ̓
Gender=Neut|Number=Singπᾶν, πάνταπᾶν, πάνταπαντὶπαντὸς, παντός
Gender=Neut|Number=Plurπάντα, πάνθ̓, πάντ̓πάντα, πάντ̓, πάνθ̓πᾶσιν, πᾶσι, πάντεσσινπάντων

DET

16933 grc-pos/DET tokens (99% of all DET tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which DET and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (9831; 58%).

DET tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm NomAccDatGenVoc
Gender=Masc|Number=Singὁ, ὃ, ὅ, χὠ, οἱ, [ὁ]τὸν, τόν, τῶντῷ, τῇ, οἱ, τῳτοῦ, τοῖο, τῶ, τῇ
Gender=Masc|Number=Dualτὼτὼτοῖντοῖν
Gender=Masc|Number=Plurοἱ, οἳ, οἵ, τοὶ, χοἰτοὺς, τούςτοῖς, τοῖσι, τοῖσιντῶν, τοῦ, οἱ
Gender=Femτῇ
Gender=Fem|Number=Singἡ, ἥ, ἁ, ἣ, χἠ, ἃτὴν, τήν, τὰν, [τὴν, τῇτῇ, τᾷ, τῷτῆς, τᾶς, τῇ, τοῦ
Gender=Fem|Number=Dualτὼτοῖν
Gender=Fem|Number=Plurαἱ, αἵ, αἳ, χαἰ, τῶν, ταὶτὰς, τάςταῖς, τῇσιτῶν
Gender=Neut|Number=Singτὸ, τό, ὃτὸ, τό, τ-, ὅτῷ, τὸτοῦ, τῷ, τοῖο
Gender=Neut|Number=Dualτοῖν
Gender=Neut|Number=Plurτὰ, τά, ἃ, τ-τὰ, τά, τ-, ἃ, ἅπερτοῖς, τοῖσι, τοῖσιν, τὰτῶν, τοῦ
Number=Singτῷ
Number=Plurτοῖς

PRON

15571 grc-pos/PRON tokens (100% of all PRON tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which PRON and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (10684; 69%), Gender=Masc (8774; 56%).

PRON tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm ἐγώNomAccDatGen
Gender=Masc|Number=Singἐγὼ, ἐγώ, ἐγὼν, κἀγὼ, ἔγωγε, ἔγωγ̓, ἁγὼ, ἐγών, κἀγώ, ἔγωγέ, κἄγωγε, ἡμᾶςμ̓, με, ἐμὲ, ἐμέ, ἔμ̓, κἀμὲ, μέ, κἄμ̓μοι, ἐμοὶ, ἐμοί, μοί, κἀμοὶ, ἔμοιγε, ἔμοιγ̓, μ̓ἐμοῦ, μου, μευ, ἐμεῦ, ἐμεῖο, ἐμέθεν, τοὐμοῦ, κἀμοῦ
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Person=1ἐγὼ, ἐγώ, ἔγωγε, κἀγὼ, ἔγωγ̓, ἐγὼνμε, ἐμὲ, ἐμέ, μ̓, κἀμὲμοι, ἐμοὶ, ἔμοιγε, ἐμοίμου, ἐμοῦ, ἐμέο, ἐμεῦ, ἐμεῖο
Gender=Masc|Number=Dualνῶϊ, νῶι, νὼνῶι, νὼ, νῶϊνῶϊν, νῶιννῶϊν, νῷν
Gender=Masc|Number=Plurἡμεῖς, ἄμμες, χἠμεῖςἡμᾶς, ἡμέας, ἄμμε, χἠμᾶς, ἁμὲἡμῖν, ἡμὶν, ἄμμι, ἧμιν, ἄμμινἡμῶν, ἡμέων
Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Person=1ἡμεῖς, ἄμμεςἡμᾶς, ἡμέαςἡμῖνἡμῶν
Gender=Fem|Number=Singἐγὼ, ἐγώ, ἐγὼν, κἀγὼ, ἔγωγ̓, ἔγωγε, ἁγὼμ̓, με, ἐμὲ, κἀμὲ, ἐμέ, ἔμ̓, μέ, κἄμ̓, τοὐμὲ, κἀμέμοι, ἐμοὶ, ἐμοί, κἀμοὶ, ἔμοιγε, ἁμοὶ, κἀμοίἐμοῦ, μου, ἐμεῦ, κἀμοῦ, μευ, ἐμέθεν, ἐμεῖο
Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Person=1ἐγὼ, ἐγὼν, ἔγωγεμε, ἐμέ, μ̓ἐμοί, ἐμοὶ, μοι, μοίμου
Gender=Fem|Number=Dualνὼνῷννῷν
Gender=Fem|Number=Plurἡμεῖςἡμᾶςἡμῖν, ἡμὶν, ἁμὶνἡμῶν, ἡμέων
Gender=Fem|Number=Plur|Person=1ἡμᾶςἡμῖνἡμῶν

VERB

13308 grc-pos/VERB tokens (29% of all VERB tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which VERB and Case co-occurred: Person=EMPTY (13308; 100%), Mood=EMPTY (13300; 100%), VerbForm=Part (13297; 100%), Aspect=EMPTY (11781; 89%), Gender=Masc (10036; 75%), Voice=Act (8670; 65%), Number=Sing (8507; 64%), Tense=Pres (6779; 51%).

VERB tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm ἔρχομαιNomAccDatGenVoc
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Actεἰληλουθώς, ἐληλυθώς
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Aor|Voice=Actἐλθὼν, ἐλθώνἐλθόντα, ἐλθόντ̓, ἐλθόνθ̓ἐλθόντ̓ἐλθόντος
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Mid,Passἐρχόμενοςἐρχόμενονἐρχομένῳἐρχομένοιο
Gender=Masc|Number=Dual|Tense=Pres|Voice=Mid,Passἐρχομένω
Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Aor|Voice=Actἐλθόντεςἐλθόνταςἐλθοῦσινἐλθόντων
Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Mid,Passἐρχόμενοιἐρχομένουςἐρχομένοισι
Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Tense=Aor|Voice=Actἐλθοῦσα, ἐλθοῦσ̓ἐλθούσας
Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Mid,Passἐρχομένη, ἐρχομέναἐρχομένην
Gender=Fem|Number=Plur|Tense=Aor|Voice=Actἐλθοῦσαιἐλθοῦσαι
Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Aor|Voice=Actἐλθὸνἐλθόντος
Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Mid,Passἐρχόμενον
Gender=Neut|Number=Plur|Tense=Aor|Voice=Actἐλθόνταἐλθοῦσι

NUM

13 grc-pos/NUM tokens (5% of all NUM tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

NUM tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm εἷςNomAccGen
Gender=Mascεἷςἕναἑνὸς
Gender=FemΜιᾶς
Gender=Neutἓν

ADP

1 grc-pos/ADP tokens (0% of all ADP tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

ADP tokens may have the following values of Case:

Relations with Agreement in Case

The 10 most frequent relations where parent and child node agree in Case: NOUN –[det]–> DET (12171; 98%), NOUN –[amod]–> ADJ (11737; 94%), NOUN –[conj]–> NOUN (2544; 96%), ADJ –[det]–> DET (1866; 97%), NOUN –[amod]–> VERB (1324; 87%), NOUN –[nmod]–> PRON (1211; 58%), VERB –[det]–> DET (1178; 78%), VERB –[conj]–> VERB (942; 72%), ADJ –[conj]–> ADJ (660; 96%), PRON –[amod]–> ADJ (573; 87%).


Treebank Statistics (UD_Ancient_Greek-PROIEL)

This feature is universal. It occurs with 5 different values: Acc, Dat, Gen, Nom, Voc.

119064 tokens (58%) have a non-empty value of Case. 20363 types (64%) occur at least once with a non-empty value of Case. 7480 lemmas (81%) occur at least once with a non-empty value of Case. The feature is used with 7 part-of-speech tags: grc-pos/NOUN (34381; 17% instances), grc-pos/DET (27325; 13% instances), grc-pos/PRON (20913; 10% instances), grc-pos/ADJ (16147; 8% instances), grc-pos/VERB (11710; 6% instances), grc-pos/PROPN (7848; 4% instances), grc-pos/NUM (740; 0% instances).

NOUN

34381 grc-pos/NOUN tokens (100% of all NOUN tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which NOUN and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (23982; 70%).

NOUN tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm θεόςNomAccDatGenVoc
Gender=Masc|Number=Singθεὸς, θεόςθεὸν, θεόνθεῷ, θεῶθεοῦθεέ
Gender=Masc|Number=Plurθεοὶ, θεοίθεοὺς, θεούςθεοῖσι, θεοῖς, θεοῖσινθεῶν
Gender=Fem|Number=Singθεὸν, θεόνθεῷθεοῦ
Gender=Fem|Number=Plurθεοὶ

DET

27325 grc-pos/DET tokens (100% of all DET tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which DET and Case co-occurred: PronType=Dem (27319; 100%), Definite=Def (27319; 100%), Number=Sing (19118; 70%).

DET tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm NomAccDatGenVoc
Gender=Masc,Neut|Number=Singτῷτοῦ
Gender=Masc,Neut|Number=Plurτοῖς, τοῖσι, τοῖσίτῶν
Gender=Masc|Number=Singὁ, ὅ, ὃ, .ὁτὸν, τόν, τοντῷτοῦ, τοὺ
Gender=Masc|Number=Plurοἱ, οἵτοὺς, τούςτοῖς, τοῖσι, τοὶς, τοῖσίτῶνΟἱ
Gender=Fem|Number=Singἡ, ἥ, ἣ, ἢτὴν, τήντῇ, τῆτῆς
Gender=Fem|Number=Plurαἱ, αἵ, αἲτὰς, τάςταῖς, τῇσιτῶν
Gender=Neut|Number=Singτὸ, τότὸ, τότῷτοῦτὸ
Gender=Neut|Number=Plurτὰ, τάτὰ, τάτοῖς, τοῖσιτῶν
Number=Plurτῶν

PRON

20913 grc-pos/PRON tokens (100% of all PRON tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which PRON and Case co-occurred: PronType=Prs (14312; 68%), Gender=Masc (13978; 67%), Number=Sing (12961; 62%).

PRON tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm πᾶςNomAccDatGenVoc
Gender=Masc,Neut|Number=Singπαντὶπαντὸς
Gender=Masc,Neut|Number=Plurπᾶσιν, πᾶσιπάντων
Gender=Masc|Number=Singπᾶςπάνταπαντὶ, παντίπαντὸς
Gender=Masc|Number=Plurπάντεςπάντας, πάνταπᾶσιν, πᾶσιπάντωνπάντες
Gender=Fem,Masc|Number=Plurπάντες
Gender=Fem|Number=Singπᾶσα, πᾶσάπᾶσαν, πᾶσάνπάσῃπάσης
Gender=Fem|Number=Plurπᾶσαιπάσαςπάσῃσι, πάσαιςπασέων, πασῶν
Gender=Neut|Number=Singπᾶνπᾶνπαντὶ, παντίπαντὸς, παντός
Gender=Neut|Number=Plurπάνταπάνταπᾶσιν, πᾶσιπάντων

ADJ

16147 grc-pos/ADJ tokens (100% of all ADJ tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which ADJ and Case co-occurred: Degree=Pos (9898; 61%), Number=Sing (8908; 55%).

ADJ tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm ἈθηναῖοςNomAccDatGenVoc
Number=SingἈθηναῖοςἈθηναῖονἈθηναίουἈθηναῖε
Number=PlurἈθηναῖοι, ἈθηναῖοίἈθηναίουςἈθηναίοισιἈθηναίωνἈθηναῖοι

VERB

11710 grc-pos/VERB tokens (28% of all VERB tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which VERB and Case co-occurred: Person=EMPTY (11710; 100%), Mood=EMPTY (11710; 100%), VerbForm=Part (11700; 100%), Gender=Masc (9506; 81%), Voice=Act (7515; 64%), Number=Sing (6966; 59%), Aspect=EMPTY (6327; 54%), Tense=Pres (6205; 53%).

VERB tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm λέγωNomAccDatGenVoc
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Masc,Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Passεἰρημένῳ
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Actεἴπας, εἰπὼν, εἰπών, εἶπας, λέξαςεἰπόντα, εἴπανταεἴπαντιεἰπόντος, εἴπαντος
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Passεἰρημένος, ῥηθεὶςῥηθένταεἰρημένῳ
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Past|Voice=Actεἰπόντες, εἴπαντες
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Past|Voice=Passσυλλεγέντεςεἰρημένουςεἰρημένοισιλεχθέντων
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Actεἰποῦσα
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Passεἰρημένην
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Fem|Number=Plur|Tense=Past|Voice=Passλεχθείσῃσι
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Actεἰρηκότος
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|Voice=Passῥηθὲν, εἰρημένονεἰρημένον, ῥηθὲν, ῥηθέντα, λεχθὲνεἰρημένου
Aspect=Perf|Gender=Neut|Number=Plur|Tense=Past|Voice=Passεἰρημέναλεχθένταεἰρημένοισιῥηθέντων
Gender=Masc,Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγοντος
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Fut|Voice=Actλέξων, ἐρέων
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγων, λέγονταλέγοντα, λέγοντάλέγοντιλέγοντος
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Passλεγόμενοςλεγόμενονλεγομένου
Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγοντεςλέγονταςλέγουσιλεγόντωνλέγοντες
Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Passλεγόμενοιλεγομένουςλεγομένων
Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγουσαλέγουσανλεγούσης
Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Passλεγομένηλεγομένηνλεγομένης
Gender=Fem|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγουσαι, λέγοντες
Gender=Fem|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Passλεγομένας
Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγονλέγοντος
Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Midλεγομένῳ
Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|Voice=Passλεγόμενον
Gender=Neut|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Actλέγονταλέγοντα
Gender=Neut|Number=Plur|Tense=Pres|Voice=Passλεγόμεναλεγόμεναλεγομένοις, λεγομένοισιλεγομένων

PROPN

7848 grc-pos/PROPN tokens (91% of all PROPN tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which PROPN and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (7400; 94%), Gender=Masc (5546; 71%).

PROPN tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm ἸησοῦςNomAccDatGenVoc
ἸησοῦςἸησοῦνἸησοῦἸησοῦἸησοῦ

NUM

740 grc-pos/NUM tokens (50% of all NUM tokens) have a non-empty value of Case.

The most frequent other feature values with which NUM and Case co-occurred: Number=Sing (401; 54%).

NUM tokens may have the following values of Case:

Paradigm εἷςNomAccDatGen
Gender=Masc,Neutἑνὶἑνὸς
Gender=Mascεἷς, εἶςἕνα, εἷςἑνὶ, ἐνὶ, ἑνίἑνὸς, ἑνός
Gender=Femμίαμίανμιᾷ, μιῇμιᾶς, μιῆς
Gender=Neutἓν, ἕνἓν, ἕνἑνίἑνὸς

Relations with Agreement in Case

The 10 most frequent relations where parent and child node agree in Case: NOUN –[det]–> DET (18012; 99%), PROPN –[det]–> DET (2911; 91%), NOUN –[amod]–> ADJ (2878; 96%), ADJ –[det]–> DET (2484; 98%), NOUN –[conj]–> NOUN (2257; 97%), VERB –[det]–> DET (1980; 85%), NOUN –[nmod]–> ADJ (1723; 86%), VERB –[conj]–> VERB (810; 87%), ADJ –[conj]–> ADJ (519; 99%), PROPN –[appos]–> NOUN (493; 87%).


Case in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]