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Case: case

Nom: nominative

The base form, typically used as a citation form (lemma).

Examples

Acc: accusative

In many languages used for direct objects of verbs.

We follow ISK in not recognizing the accusative except for the personal pronouns and kuka “who” (http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=1221, http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=1226)

Examples

Gen: genitive

Examples

Ins: instructive

Instructive primarily characterizes manner or instrument. Instructive can also express place or time.

Corresponds to some uses of English by means of or with the aid of.

Examples

References

Par: partitive

In Finnish the partitive case is an object case that can also express indefinite quantity or unfinished actions.

References

Ess: essive

Essive is typically a case of temporal adverbials (e.g. tiistaina “on Tuesday”). In expressions of state, essive is a case of predicative adverbials, characterizing purpose or task (e.g. vartijana “as a guard”) in intransitive forms, and how an object or its purpose is perceived in transitive forms (e.g. syödä raakana “eat raw”).

Essive corresponds to some uses of English as a.

Examples

References

Tra: translative

In intransitive sentences, the translative case typically expresses change of state (becomes, changes to) or manner.

Examples

In transitive sentences, the translative case describes the sentence object.

Examples

References

Com: comitative / associative

The comitative (also called associative) case expresses belonging, a social relationship or a part of an entity. It often corresponds to English together with and has a descriptive or explicative function.

Examples

References

Abe: abessive

The abessive case expresses wihtout what something has happened and roughly corresponds to the English preposition without.

Examples

Ine: inessive

The inessive case expresses location inside of something.

Examples

Ill: illative

The illative case expresses direction into something.

Examples

Ela: elative

The elative case expresses direction out of something.

Examples

Ade: adessive

The adessive cases expresses location on the outer or upper surface of an entity, or movement to/from such a surface. The corresponding directional cases are allative (towards something) and ablative (from something).

(Note: this is a very incomplete listing of the uses of the Finnish adessive, which can also express place, time, state, owner, instrument, means, manner, and quantity.)

Examples

References

All: allative

The allative case expresses direction onto something (destination is adessive).

Examples

Abl: ablative

Prototypical meaning: direction from some point.

Examples

Notes: distributive

Some descriptions of Finnish recognize a distributive case conveying that something happens to every member of a set, one at a time. UD Finnish does not include Dis (distributive) as a possible value of the Case feature, but analyses the -ttain suffix as an adverbial derivation.

Examples

References

Notes: lative

Some descriptions of Finnish mark the base form of the first infinitive as being in the lative case (see e.g. Omorfi tagger documentation). UD Finnish follows ISK in not recognizing the lative case.

References

Diff

FinnTreeBank (FI_FTB) marks the base form of the first infinitive as lative in contrast to translative.


Case in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]