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PRON: pronoun

Definition

A pronoun is in Ancient Greek a word standing for a noun or a NP (and, like nouns, it inflects for gender, number, and case). It is to be noted that in Ancient Greek traditional grammars, as well as in other frameworks for other languages, the term (pro-)noun covers a class of words used as both nouns and adjectives. Following the UD guidelines, the label PRON is employed only for pronouns standing for nouns only. When they are used as adjectives, they are labeled in UD as DET.

A list for Ancient Greek pronouns can be found in Smyth 1920: 90-98.

Examples

References

Smyth, Herbert Weir. 1920. A Greek Grammar for Colleges. New York: American Book Company (Perseus Digital Library; Internet Archive).


Treebank Statistics (UD_Ancient_Greek)

There are 65 PRON lemmas (0%), 687 PRON types (1%) and 15597 PRON tokens (6%). Out of 13 observed tags, the rank of PRON is: 8 in number of lemmas, 5 in number of types and 7 in number of tokens.

The 10 most frequent PRON lemmas: ἐγώ, ὁ, ὅς, αὐτός, σύ, τις, ὅδε, οὗτος, ἕ, ἑαυτοῦ

The 10 most frequent PRON types: οἱ, μοι, τις, ἐγὼ, τι, μιν, τί, τὸν, ταῦτα, μ̓

The 10 most frequent ambiguous lemmas: ἐγώ (PRON 2390, NOUN 2), (DET 17027, PRON 1944), ὅς (PRON 1701, ADJ 22, DET 1), αὐτός (PRON 1441, ADJ 882, ADV 1), σύ (PRON 1398, ADV 1, NOUN 1), τις (PRON 1369, ADJ 192, NOUN 1), ὅδε (PRON 1178, ADJ 50), οὗτος (PRON 1149, ADJ 826), ἑαυτοῦ (PRON 324, ADJ 44), σφεῖς (PRON 304, ADJ 2)

The 10 most frequent ambiguous types: οἱ (DET 833, PRON 544), τις (PRON 449, ADJ 30), τι (PRON 363, ADJ 42, ADV 11), τί (PRON 287, ADJ 11, ADV 5), τὸν (DET 1316, PRON 267, ADJ 1), ταῦτα (PRON 261, ADJ 116), αὐτῶν (PRON 218, ADJ 50), ὧν (PRON 194, ADJ 3, ADV 2), τάδε (PRON 187, ADJ 6), τίς (PRON 185, ADJ 18)

Morphology

The form / lemma ratio of PRON is 10.569231 (the average of all parts of speech is 3.041201).

The 1st highest number of forms (75) was observed with the lemma “ὅς”: αἳ, αἵ, αἵπερ, αἷν, αἷς, αἷσπερ, οἳ, οἳ], οἵ, οἵπερ, οἷν, οἷο, οἷς, οἷσί, οἷσίν, οἷσι, οἷσιν, οὓς, οὕς, οὕσπερ, οὗ, τά, τοὺς, τοῖσί, τοῖσι, τοῦ, τόν, τὰ, τὰς, τὴν, τὸ, τὸν, τῆς, τῇ, τῇσι, τῶν, τῷ, χὤ, χὦνπερ, χᾦ, ἃ, ἃν, ἃς, ἅ, ἅπερ, ἅς, ἅσπερ, ἇς, ἣ, ἣν, ἥ, ἥν, ἥνπερ, ἥπερ, ἧς, ὃ, ὃν, ὃς, ὅ, ὅν, ὅς, ὅσπερ, ὅττι, ὣ, ὥ, ὧν, ὧνπερ, ᾇ, ᾇπέρ, ᾗ, ᾗς, ᾗσι, ᾗσιν, ᾧ, ᾧπερ.

The 2nd highest number of forms (61) was observed with the lemma “ἐγώ”: κἀγώ, κἀγὼ, κἀμέ, κἀμοί, κἀμοὶ, κἀμοῦ, κἀμὲ, κἄγωγε, κἄμ̓, μ̓, μέ, με, μευ, μοί, μοι, μου, νὼ, νῶι, νῶιν, νῶϊ, νῶϊν, νῷν, τοὐμοῦ, τοὐμὲ, χἠμεῖς, χἠμᾶς, ἁγὼ, ἁμοὶ, ἁμὲ, ἁμὶν, ἄμμε, ἄμμες, ἄμμι, ἄμμιν, ἐγώ, ἐγών, ἐγὼ, ἐγὼν, ἐμέ, ἐμέθεν, ἐμέο, ἐμεῖο, ἐμεῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμοὶ, ἐμοῦ, ἐμὲ, ἔγωγ̓, ἔγωγέ, ἔγωγε, ἔμ̓, ἔμοιγ̓, ἔμοιγε, ἡμέας, ἡμέων, ἡμεῖς, ἡμὶν, ἡμᾶς, ἡμῖν, ἡμῶν, ἧμιν.

The 3rd highest number of forms (58) was observed with the lemma “ὅδε”: αἵδ̓, αἵδε, οἵδ̓, οἵδε, τάδ̓, τάδε, τάνδ̓, τάνδε, τάσδ̓, τάσδε, τήνδ̓, τήνδε, ταῖνδε, ταῖσδ̓, ταῖσδέ, ταῖσδὲ, τοίσδεσι, τοίσδεσσι, τοίσδεσσιν, τούσδ̓, τούσδε, τοῖνδε, τοῖσδ̓, τοῖσδέ, τοῖσδε, τοῖσδεσι, τοῖσδεσσι, τοῖσιδε, τοῦδ̓, τοῦδέ, τοῦδε, τόδ̓, τόδε, τόνδ̓, τόνδε, τώδ̓, τώδε, τᾶσδ̓, τᾷδ̓, τᾷδέ, τῆσδ̓, τῆσδέ, τῆσδε, τῇδ̓, τῇδέ, τῇδε, τῶνδ̓, τῶνδέ, τῶνδε, τῷδ̓, τῷδε, ἅδ̓, ἅδε, ἥδ̓, ἥδε, ὁδ̓, ὅδ̓, ὅδε.

PRON occurs with 4 features: grc-feat/Case (15571; 100% instances), grc-feat/Number (15570; 100% instances), grc-feat/Gender (14833; 95% instances), grc-feat/Person (556; 4% instances)

PRON occurs with 13 feature-value pairs: Case=Acc, Case=Dat, Case=Gen, Case=Nom, Gender=Fem, Gender=Masc, Gender=Neut, Number=Dual, Number=Plur, Number=Sing, Person=1, Person=2, Person=3

PRON occurs with 79 feature combinations. The most frequent feature combination is Case=Nom|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing (1913 tokens). Examples: τις, ἐγὼ, ὁ, τίς, ὃς, ὅς, αὐτὸς, σὺ, ἐγώ, ὅ

Relations

PRON nodes are attached to their parents using 14 different relations: grc-dep/dobj (5371; 34% instances), grc-dep/nmod (4414; 28% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (4237; 27% instances), grc-dep/iobj (923; 6% instances), grc-dep/advmod (181; 1% instances), grc-dep/conj (170; 1% instances), grc-dep/nsubjpass (121; 1% instances), grc-dep/xcomp (85; 1% instances), grc-dep/root (70; 0% instances), grc-dep/mark (14; 0% instances), grc-dep/cc (8; 0% instances), grc-dep/amod (1; 0% instances), grc-dep/appos (1; 0% instances), grc-dep/mwe (1; 0% instances)

Parents of PRON nodes belong to 13 different parts of speech: VERB (11881; 76% instances), NOUN (2336; 15% instances), ADJ (748; 5% instances), PRON (237; 2% instances), ADV (123; 1% instances), DET (70; 0% instances), ROOT (70; 0% instances), PUNCT (45; 0% instances), CONJ (30; 0% instances), ADP (26; 0% instances), SCONJ (24; 0% instances), NUM (6; 0% instances), INTJ (1; 0% instances)

10730 (69%) PRON nodes are leaves.

3867 (25%) PRON nodes have one child.

669 (4%) PRON nodes have two children.

331 (2%) PRON nodes have three or more children.

The highest child degree of a PRON node is 11.

Children of PRON nodes are attached using 18 different relations: grc-dep/case (1543; 24% instances), grc-dep/advmod (1436; 22% instances), grc-dep/amod (969; 15% instances), grc-dep/punct (733; 11% instances), grc-dep/nmod (524; 8% instances), grc-dep/conj (200; 3% instances), grc-dep/det (189; 3% instances), grc-dep/cc (187; 3% instances), grc-dep/acl (178; 3% instances), grc-dep/cop (157; 2% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (150; 2% instances), grc-dep/xcomp (70; 1% instances), grc-dep/neg (62; 1% instances), grc-dep/dobj (25; 0% instances), grc-dep/advcl (16; 0% instances), grc-dep/mark (9; 0% instances), grc-dep/iobj (5; 0% instances), grc-dep/appos (3; 0% instances)

Children of PRON nodes belong to 13 different parts of speech: ADP (1524; 24% instances), ADJ (1086; 17% instances), VERB (937; 15% instances), ADV (875; 14% instances), PUNCT (740; 11% instances), NOUN (643; 10% instances), PRON (237; 4% instances), CONJ (200; 3% instances), DET (198; 3% instances), SCONJ (7; 0% instances), NUM (6; 0% instances), X (2; 0% instances), INTJ (1; 0% instances)


Treebank Statistics (UD_Ancient_Greek-PROIEL)

There are 47 PRON lemmas (0%), 491 PRON types (2%) and 20913 PRON tokens (10%). Out of 13 observed tags, the rank of PRON is: 8 in number of lemmas, 6 in number of types and 5 in number of tokens.

The 10 most frequent PRON lemmas: αὐτός, ἐγώ, ὑμεῖς, πᾶς, ὅς, σύ, ὁ, ἡμεῖς, τὶς, τίς

The 10 most frequent PRON types: αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ, αὐτὸν, αὐτῶν, ὑμῖν, μου, αὐτοῖς, ὑμῶν, σου, ὑμᾶς

The 10 most frequent ambiguous lemmas: αὐτός (PRON 5660, ADJ 590, DET 3), (DET 27319, PRON 1336, ADJ 27), οὗ (PRON 257, ADV 25), ἄλλος (ADJ 320, PRON 198), οἷος (PRON 53, ADJ 30), ἕκαστος (ADJ 159, PRON 15), οὐδέτερος (PRON 9, ADJ 1), μετεξέτεροι (PRON 3, ADJ 2), σύμπας (ADJ 6, PRON 1), ἅπας (ADJ 82, PRON 1)

The 10 most frequent ambiguous types: αὐτοῦ (PRON 1372, ADV 29, ADJ 23), αὐτῷ (PRON 861, ADJ 28), αὐτὸν (PRON 703, ADJ 37), αὐτῶν (PRON 676, ADJ 26), αὐτοῖς (PRON 537, ADJ 2), οἱ (DET 1628, PRON 363, ADJ 1), αὐτόν (PRON 300, ADJ 4), (PRON 257, ADJ 2, DET 1), (DET 3263, PRON 251, ADJ 3), αὐτοὺς (PRON 235, ADJ 22, DET 1)

Morphology

The form / lemma ratio of PRON is 10.446809 (the average of all parts of speech is 3.412038).

The 1st highest number of forms (35) was observed with the lemma “ὁ”: αἱ, αἳ, αἵ, οἱ, οἳ, οἵ, οἷς, οὓς, τά, τήν, τοὺς, τοῖσί, τοῖσι, τοῦ, τό, τόν, τὰ, τὰς, τὴν, τὸ, τὸν, τῆς, τῇ, τῇσι, τῶ, τῶν, τῷ, ἃ, ἡ, ἣ, ὁ, ὃ, ὃν, ὅ, ᾧ.

The 2nd highest number of forms (33) was observed with the lemma “ὅς”: αἳ, αἵ, αἷς, οἱ, οἳ, οἵ, οἷς, οἷσί, οἷσι, οὓς, οὗ, τοὺς, τῷ, ἃ, ἃς, ἅ, ἡ, ἣ, ἣν, ἥ, ἥν, ἧς, ὁ, ὃ, ὃν, ὃς, ὅ, ὅν, ὅς, ὦν, ὧν, ᾗ, ᾧ.

The 3rd highest number of forms (32) was observed with the lemma “τὶς”: τί, τίνι, τίς, τεο, τευ, τεῦ, τεῳ, τεῶν, τεῷ, τι, τινά, τινάς, τινές, τινα, τινας, τινες, τινι, τινος, τινων, τινός, τινὰ, τινὰς, τινὲς, τινὶ, τινὸς, τινῶν, τις, τισίν, τισιν, τισὶ, τισὶν, τὶ.

PRON occurs with 7 features: grc-feat/Case (20913; 100% instances), grc-feat/Number (20913; 100% instances), grc-feat/Gender (20874; 100% instances), grc-feat/PronType (17719; 85% instances), grc-feat/Person (14312; 68% instances), grc-feat/Reflex (647; 3% instances), grc-feat/Poss (262; 1% instances)

PRON occurs with 21 feature-value pairs: Case=Acc, Case=Dat, Case=Gen, Case=Nom, Case=Voc, Gender=Fem, Gender=Fem,Masc, Gender=Masc, Gender=Masc,Neut, Gender=Neut, Number=Plur, Number=Sing, Person=1, Person=2, Person=3, Poss=Yes, PronType=Int, PronType=Prs, PronType=Rcp, PronType=Rel, Reflex=Yes

PRON occurs with 274 feature combinations. The most frequent feature combination is Case=Gen|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs (1333 tokens). Examples: αὐτοῦ, τοῦ

Relations

PRON nodes are attached to their parents using 20 different relations: grc-dep/nmod (7418; 35% instances), grc-dep/iobj (4588; 22% instances), grc-dep/dobj (3856; 18% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (3687; 18% instances), grc-dep/nsubjpass (384; 2% instances), grc-dep/root (215; 1% instances), grc-dep/conj (158; 1% instances), grc-dep/remnant (156; 1% instances), grc-dep/mwe (94; 0% instances), grc-dep/appos (85; 0% instances), grc-dep/ccomp (82; 0% instances), grc-dep/det (63; 0% instances), grc-dep/advcl (45; 0% instances), grc-dep/xcomp (39; 0% instances), grc-dep/aux (28; 0% instances), grc-dep/advmod (7; 0% instances), grc-dep/parataxis (4; 0% instances), grc-dep/csubjpass (2; 0% instances), grc-dep/dep (1; 0% instances), grc-dep/vocative (1; 0% instances)

Parents of PRON nodes belong to 13 different parts of speech: VERB (13407; 64% instances), NOUN (5138; 25% instances), ADJ (1064; 5% instances), PRON (511; 2% instances), ROOT (215; 1% instances), PROPN (189; 1% instances), ADV (158; 1% instances), SCONJ (101; 0% instances), NUM (55; 0% instances), ADP (35; 0% instances), INTJ (25; 0% instances), CONJ (11; 0% instances), DET (4; 0% instances)

16356 (78%) PRON nodes are leaves.

3649 (17%) PRON nodes have one child.

497 (2%) PRON nodes have two children.

411 (2%) PRON nodes have three or more children.

The highest child degree of a PRON node is 12.

Children of PRON nodes are attached using 24 different relations: grc-dep/case (2691; 43% instances), grc-dep/nmod (623; 10% instances), grc-dep/det (340; 5% instances), grc-dep/cc (330; 5% instances), grc-dep/cop (299; 5% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (294; 5% instances), grc-dep/conj (266; 4% instances), grc-dep/discourse (248; 4% instances), grc-dep/appos (233; 4% instances), grc-dep/advmod (220; 4% instances), grc-dep/acl (197; 3% instances), grc-dep/remnant (128; 2% instances), grc-dep/amod (71; 1% instances), grc-dep/neg (65; 1% instances), grc-dep/advcl (51; 1% instances), grc-dep/mark (43; 1% instances), grc-dep/vocative (32; 1% instances), grc-dep/iobj (18; 0% instances), grc-dep/ccomp (12; 0% instances), grc-dep/aux (10; 0% instances), grc-dep/nummod (10; 0% instances), grc-dep/parataxis (5; 0% instances), grc-dep/dobj (1; 0% instances), grc-dep/mwe (1; 0% instances)

Children of PRON nodes belong to 12 different parts of speech: ADP (2693; 44% instances), VERB (695; 11% instances), ADV (581; 9% instances), NOUN (579; 9% instances), PRON (511; 8% instances), CONJ (331; 5% instances), ADJ (320; 5% instances), DET (318; 5% instances), PROPN (90; 1% instances), SCONJ (43; 1% instances), NUM (23; 0% instances), INTJ (4; 0% instances)


PRON in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [ug] [uk] [u] [urj] [ur] [vi] [yue] [zh]