home grc/pos edit page issue tracker

This page still pertains to UD version 1.

ADJ: adjective

Definition

The adjective is in Ancient Greek the PoS that normally agrees with a nominal in Gender, Number, and Case. The adjective can be used attributively or predicatively.

Attributive adjective

The attributive adjective directly modifies a nominal (Smyth 1920: 272-275).

Examples

Predicative adjective

The predicative adjective depends on the copula or a copular verb (Smyth 1920: 275-278). Note that there are pecularities concerning the position of the attributive adjective (Smyth 1920: 295-297).

Examples

References

Smyth, Herbert Weir. 1920. A Greek Grammar for Colleges. New York: American Book Company (Perseus Digital Library; Internet Archive).


Treebank Statistics (UD_Ancient_Greek)

There are 3890 ADJ lemmas (24%), 9719 ADJ types (20%) and 25776 ADJ tokens (11%). Out of 13 observed tags, the rank of ADJ is: 3 in number of lemmas, 3 in number of types and 5 in number of tokens.

The 10 most frequent ADJ lemmas: πᾶς, αὐτός, πολύς, οὗτος, μέγας, ἄλλος, κακός, φίλος, ἐμός, πρῶτος

The 10 most frequent ADJ types: πάντα, πολλὰ, αὐτὸς, πάντες, πρῶτον, μέγα, ταῦτα, πᾶν, οὐδὲν, πάντας

The 10 most frequent ambiguous lemmas: αὐτός (PRON 1441, ADJ 882, ADV 1), πολύς (ADJ 861, ADV 1), οὗτος (PRON 1149, ADJ 826), μέγας (ADJ 632, ADV 6), ἄλλος (ADJ 599, PRON 190, ADV 4), κακός (ADJ 472, ADV 45, NOUN 1), φίλος (ADJ 302, NOUN 5, ADV 2), καλός (ADJ 231, ADV 72), ὅσος (ADJ 229, PRON 2), ἐκεῖνος (ADJ 203, PRON 163, ADV 1)

The 10 most frequent ambiguous types: πολλὰ (ADJ 190, ADV 2), αὐτὸς (ADJ 158, PRON 83), πρῶτον (ADJ 146, ADV 5), μέγα (ADJ 144, ADV 2), ταῦτα (PRON 261, ADJ 116), οὐδὲν (ADJ 104, PRON 96), μόνον (ADJ 91, ADV 4), αὐτὸν (PRON 146, ADJ 90), πρότερον (ADJ 88, ADV 3), αὐτῷ (PRON 144, ADJ 87)

Morphology

The form / lemma ratio of ADJ is 2.498458 (the average of all parts of speech is 3.041201).

The 1st highest number of forms (63) was observed with the lemma “μέγας”: μέγ̓, μέγα, μέγαν, μέγας, μέγιστ̓, μέγιστα, μέγισται, μέγιστοι, μέγιστον, μέγιστος, μέγιστόν, μέζονα, μέζονας, μέζονος, μέζοσι, μέζω, μέζων, μέσδων, μείζον̓, μείζονά, μείζονα, μείζονας, μείζονες, μείζονι, μείζονος, μείζοσιν, μείζους, μείζω, μείζων, μεγάλ̓, μεγάλα, μεγάλαι, μεγάλαις, μεγάλαισιν, μεγάλαν, μεγάλας, μεγάλη, μεγάλην, μεγάλης, μεγάλοι, μεγάλοιο, μεγάλοις, μεγάλοισι, μεγάλου, μεγάλους, μεγάλων, μεγάλως, μεγάλῃ, μεγάλῃσι, μεγάλῳ, μεγίσταις, μεγίστας, μεγίστη, μεγίστην, μεγίστης, μεγίστοις, μεγίστους, μεγίστων, μεγίστῃ, μεγίστῳ, μειζόνων, μεῖζον, μεῖζόν.

The 2nd highest number of forms (54) was observed with the lemma “πολύς”: [πολλοί, [πολλὰ, πλεῖστα, πολέας, πολέες, πολέεσσι, πολέεσσιν, πολέος, πολέσιν, πολέων, πολεῖ, πολλ̓, πολλά, πολλάς, πολλέων, πολλή, πολλήν, πολλαί, πολλαὶ, πολλαῖς, πολλαῖσι, πολλοί, πολλούς, πολλοὶ, πολλοὺς, πολλοῖς, πολλοῖσι, πολλοῖσιν, πολλοῦ, πολλόν, πολλός, πολλὰ, πολλὰς, πολλὴ, πολλὴν, πολλὸν, πολλὸς, πολλᾷ, πολλῆς, πολλῇ, πολλῇσι, πολλῶν, πολλῷ, πολύ, πολύν, πολύς, πολὺ, πολὺν, πολὺς, πουλὺ, πουλὺν, πουλὺς, πόλεσι, πόλλ̓.

The 3rd highest number of forms (47) was observed with the lemma “αὐτός”: αὐτά, αὐτέων, αὐτή, αὐτήν, αὐταὶ, αὐταῖς, αὐτοί, αὐτούς, αὐτοὶ, αὐτοὺς, αὐτοῖο, αὐτοῖς, αὐτοῖσί, αὐτοῖσι, αὐτοῖσιν, αὐτοῦ, αὐτό, αὐτόν, αὐτός, αὐτὰ, αὐτὰς, αὐτὴ, αὐτὴν, αὐτὸ, αὐτὸν, αὐτὸς, αὐτὼ, αὐτᾶς, αὐτῆς, αὐτῇ, αὐτῇς, αὐτῇσι, αὐτῇσιν, αὐτῶν, αὐτῷ, αὑταὶ, αὑτός, αὑτὸς, αὔθ̓, αὔτ̓, καὐτόν, καὐτὴ, καὐτὸς, ταύτῃ, ταὐτά, ταὐτὸ, τὠυτὸ.

ADJ occurs with 4 features: grc-feat/Number (25543; 99% instances), grc-feat/Case (25535; 99% instances), grc-feat/Gender (25463; 99% instances), grc-feat/Degree (1021; 4% instances)

ADJ occurs with 13 feature-value pairs: Case=Acc, Case=Dat, Case=Gen, Case=Nom, Case=Voc, Degree=Cmp, Degree=Sup, Gender=Fem, Gender=Masc, Gender=Neut, Number=Dual, Number=Plur, Number=Sing

ADJ occurs with 106 feature combinations. The most frequent feature combination is Case=Acc|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing (2750 tokens). Examples: πρῶτον, μέγα, πᾶν, πρότερον, οὐδὲν, μόνον, πολὺ, τοῦτο, ὕστερον, ἄλλο

Relations

ADJ nodes are attached to their parents using 14 different relations: grc-dep/amod (14113; 55% instances), grc-dep/advmod (4213; 16% instances), grc-dep/dobj (2801; 11% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (1338; 5% instances), grc-dep/xcomp (1240; 5% instances), grc-dep/conj (1155; 4% instances), grc-dep/root (586; 2% instances), grc-dep/iobj (260; 1% instances), grc-dep/nsubjpass (47; 0% instances), grc-dep/cc (10; 0% instances), grc-dep/case (5; 0% instances), grc-dep/mark (5; 0% instances), grc-dep/appos (2; 0% instances), grc-dep/mwe (1; 0% instances)

Parents of ADJ nodes belong to 14 different parts of speech: NOUN (13264; 51% instances), VERB (8249; 32% instances), ADJ (2129; 8% instances), PRON (1086; 4% instances), ROOT (586; 2% instances), ADV (144; 1% instances), DET (93; 0% instances), PUNCT (82; 0% instances), SCONJ (54; 0% instances), CONJ (42; 0% instances), ADP (28; 0% instances), NUM (17; 0% instances), INTJ (1; 0% instances), X (1; 0% instances)

16755 (65%) ADJ nodes are leaves.

5060 (20%) ADJ nodes have one child.

2108 (8%) ADJ nodes have two children.

1853 (7%) ADJ nodes have three or more children.

The highest child degree of a ADJ node is 19.

Children of ADJ nodes are attached using 19 different relations: grc-dep/advmod (2794; 16% instances), grc-dep/punct (2762; 16% instances), grc-dep/nmod (1984; 11% instances), grc-dep/det (1932; 11% instances), grc-dep/cop (1181; 7% instances), grc-dep/cc (1152; 7% instances), grc-dep/conj (1110; 6% instances), grc-dep/case (1065; 6% instances), grc-dep/amod (945; 5% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (848; 5% instances), grc-dep/neg (454; 3% instances), grc-dep/dobj (269; 2% instances), grc-dep/mark (212; 1% instances), grc-dep/acl (211; 1% instances), grc-dep/xcomp (194; 1% instances), grc-dep/advcl (145; 1% instances), grc-dep/iobj (35; 0% instances), grc-dep/auxpass (10; 0% instances), grc-dep/appos (2; 0% instances)

Children of ADJ nodes belong to 13 different parts of speech: PUNCT (2861; 17% instances), ADV (2634; 15% instances), VERB (2489; 14% instances), NOUN (2225; 13% instances), ADJ (2129; 12% instances), DET (1993; 12% instances), ADP (1064; 6% instances), CONJ (947; 5% instances), PRON (748; 4% instances), SCONJ (199; 1% instances), NUM (11; 0% instances), INTJ (3; 0% instances), X (2; 0% instances)


Treebank Statistics (UD_Ancient_Greek-PROIEL)

There are 1535 ADJ lemmas (16%), 4398 ADJ types (14%) and 16152 ADJ tokens (8%). Out of 13 observed tags, the rank of ADJ is: 3 in number of lemmas, 3 in number of types and 6 in number of tokens.

The 10 most frequent ADJ lemmas: οὗτος, πολύς, αὐτός, μέγας, ἐκεῖνος, ἄλλος, ὅδε, πρῶτος, Ἀθηναῖος, ἀγαθός

The 10 most frequent ADJ types: ταῦτα, τοῦτο, τούτων, οὗτος, οὗτοι, τούτου, τοῦτον, αὐτὸς, τάδε, τούτῳ

The 10 most frequent ambiguous lemmas: οὗτος (ADJ 3195, DET 3), αὐτός (PRON 5660, ADJ 590, DET 3), ἄλλος (ADJ 320, PRON 198), ἕκαστος (ADJ 159, PRON 15), νεκρός (ADJ 128, NOUN 5), ἅπας (ADJ 82, PRON 1), πονηρός (ADJ 68, NOUN 1), αἰώνιος (ADJ 59, NOUN 1), ἔρημος (ADJ 48, NOUN 9), βάρβαρος (ADJ 43, NOUN 31)

The 10 most frequent ambiguous types: τοῦτο (ADJ 516, DET 1), τούτων (ADJ 248, DET 1), τούτου (ADJ 178, DET 1), αὐτὸς (ADJ 144, PRON 79), αὕτη (ADJ 103, PRON 3), αὐτοὶ (ADJ 98, PRON 47, DET 2), αὐτὸ (PRON 69, ADJ 59), ταύτῃ (ADJ 57, ADV 34), ἕκαστος (ADJ 53, PRON 5), ἄλλων (ADJ 40, PRON 5)

Morphology

The form / lemma ratio of ADJ is 2.865147 (the average of all parts of speech is 3.412038).

The 1st highest number of forms (69) was observed with the lemma “πολύς”: πλέον, πλέοσι, πλέω, πλείονές, πλείονα, πλείονας, πλείονες, πλείονος, πλείοσιν, πλείους, πλείστας, πλείστη, πλείστην, πλείστου, πλείστους, πλείστων, πλείω, πλειόνων, πλεόνων, πλεῖον, πλεῖστα, πλεῖσται, πλεῖστοι, πλεῖστον, πλεῖστος, πλεῖόν, πλεῦνας, πλεῦνες, πλεῦνος, πλεῦνός, πολλά, πολλάς, πολλέων, πολλή, πολλήν, πολλαί, πολλαὶ, πολλαῖς, πολλοί, πολλούς, πολλοὶ, πολλοὺς, πολλοῖς, πολλοῖσί, πολλοῖσι, πολλοῖσιν, πολλοῦ, πολλόν, πολλός, πολλὰ, πολλὰς, πολλὴ, πολλὴν, πολλὸν, πολλὸς, πολλῆς, πολλῇ, πολλῇσι, πολλῶ, πολλῶν, πολλῷ, πολύ, πολύν, πολύς, πολὺ, πολὺν, πολὺς, πόλλου, πόλλ’.

The 2nd highest number of forms (44) was observed with the lemma “ἀγαθός”: ἀγαθά, ἀγαθάς, ἀγαθέ, ἀγαθή, ἀγαθήν, ἀγαθοί, ἀγαθούς, ἀγαθοὶ, ἀγαθοὺς, ἀγαθοῖς, ἀγαθοῖσι, ἀγαθοῦ, ἀγαθόν, ἀγαθός, ἀγαθὰ, ἀγαθὲ, ἀγαθὴ, ἀγαθὴν, ἀγαθὸν, ἀγαθὸς, ἀγαθῆς, ἀγαθῇ, ἀγαθῶν, ἀγαθῷ, ἀμείνονα, ἀμείνονας, ἀμείνονες, ἀμείνονος, ἀμείνους, ἀμείνω, ἀμείνων, ἀρίστας, ἀρίστη, ἀρίστου, ἀρίστους, ἀρίστῃ, ἀριστῶν, ἄμεινον, ἄριστά, ἄριστα, ἄριστοί, ἄριστοι, ἄριστον, ἄριστος.

The 3rd highest number of forms (42) was observed with the lemma “μέγας”: μέγα, μέγαν, μέγας, μέγιστα, μέγιστον, μέγιστος, μέγ’, μέζον, μέζονα, μέζονας, μέζονες, μέζονος, μέζοσι, μέζω, μέζων, μείζονα, μείζονας, μείζονος, μείζω, μείζων, μεγάλα, μεγάλαι, μεγάλαις, μεγάλας, μεγάλη, μεγάλην, μεγάλης, μεγάλοι, μεγάλοις, μεγάλοισι, μεγάλου, μεγάλους, μεγάλων, μεγάλῃ, μεγάλῃσι, μεγάλῳ, μεγίστην, μεγίστοισι, μεγίστῃσι, μεγαλέων, μεῖζον, μεῖζόν.

ADJ occurs with 6 features: grc-feat/Case (16147; 100% instances), grc-feat/Number (16147; 100% instances), grc-feat/Gender (15933; 99% instances), grc-feat/Degree (10793; 67% instances), grc-feat/Definite (27; 0% instances), grc-feat/PronType (27; 0% instances)

ADJ occurs with 17 feature-value pairs: Case=Acc, Case=Dat, Case=Gen, Case=Nom, Case=Voc, Definite=Def, Degree=Cmp, Degree=Pos, Degree=Sup, Gender=Fem, Gender=Fem,Masc, Gender=Masc, Gender=Masc,Neut, Gender=Neut, Number=Plur, Number=Sing, PronType=Dem

ADJ occurs with 157 feature combinations. The most frequent feature combination is Case=Nom|Degree=Pos|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur (1217 tokens). Examples: πολλοὶ, Ἀθηναῖοι, Ἰουδαῖοι, Λακεδαιμόνιοι, βάρβαροι, πολλοί, λοιποὶ, μακάριοι, ἀμφότεροι, Ἀργεῖοι

Relations

ADJ nodes are attached to their parents using 19 different relations: grc-dep/amod (3302; 20% instances), grc-dep/nmod (3134; 19% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (1910; 12% instances), grc-dep/dobj (1770; 11% instances), grc-dep/advmod (1391; 9% instances), grc-dep/iobj (977; 6% instances), grc-dep/conj (970; 6% instances), grc-dep/root (751; 5% instances), grc-dep/xcomp (612; 4% instances), grc-dep/appos (359; 2% instances), grc-dep/nsubjpass (292; 2% instances), grc-dep/advcl (248; 2% instances), grc-dep/remnant (174; 1% instances), grc-dep/ccomp (161; 1% instances), grc-dep/vocative (40; 0% instances), grc-dep/acl (26; 0% instances), grc-dep/parataxis (19; 0% instances), grc-dep/csubjpass (14; 0% instances), grc-dep/dep (2; 0% instances)

Parents of ADJ nodes belong to 13 different parts of speech: VERB (7205; 45% instances), NOUN (5703; 35% instances), ADJ (1413; 9% instances), ROOT (751; 5% instances), PROPN (434; 3% instances), PRON (320; 2% instances), ADV (182; 1% instances), NUM (73; 0% instances), ADP (32; 0% instances), SCONJ (19; 0% instances), CONJ (13; 0% instances), DET (4; 0% instances), INTJ (3; 0% instances)

8990 (56%) ADJ nodes are leaves.

3901 (24%) ADJ nodes have one child.

1664 (10%) ADJ nodes have two children.

1597 (10%) ADJ nodes have three or more children.

The highest child degree of a ADJ node is 21.

Children of ADJ nodes are attached using 24 different relations: grc-dep/det (2547; 19% instances), grc-dep/nmod (1719; 13% instances), grc-dep/case (1376; 10% instances), grc-dep/cop (1208; 9% instances), grc-dep/cc (1021; 7% instances), grc-dep/nsubj (903; 7% instances), grc-dep/conj (900; 7% instances), grc-dep/discourse (773; 6% instances), grc-dep/iobj (649; 5% instances), grc-dep/advmod (639; 5% instances), grc-dep/acl (393; 3% instances), grc-dep/advcl (283; 2% instances), grc-dep/neg (274; 2% instances), grc-dep/appos (233; 2% instances), grc-dep/ccomp (200; 1% instances), grc-dep/mark (187; 1% instances), grc-dep/remnant (140; 1% instances), grc-dep/amod (126; 1% instances), grc-dep/vocative (52; 0% instances), grc-dep/nummod (33; 0% instances), grc-dep/parataxis (10; 0% instances), grc-dep/dobj (9; 0% instances), grc-dep/aux (7; 0% instances), grc-dep/mwe (1; 0% instances)

Children of ADJ nodes belong to 12 different parts of speech: DET (2523; 18% instances), VERB (2419; 18% instances), NOUN (1718; 13% instances), ADV (1630; 12% instances), ADJ (1413; 10% instances), ADP (1380; 10% instances), PRON (1064; 8% instances), CONJ (1024; 7% instances), PROPN (243; 2% instances), SCONJ (192; 1% instances), NUM (55; 0% instances), INTJ (22; 0% instances)


ADJ in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [ug] [uk] [u] [urj] [ur] [vi] [yue] [zh]