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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Georgian GLC

Language: Georgian (code: ka)
Family: Kartvelian

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.13 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Irina Lobzhanidze.

Repository: UD_Georgian-GLC
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: fiction, nonfiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Georgian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [irina_lobzhanidze (æt) iliauni • edu • ge]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas assigned by a program, not checked manually
UPOS assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
XPOS assigned by a program, not checked manually
Features assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
Relations assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification


The Georgian UD Treebank (UD_Georgian-GLC) is the first syntactically annotated corpus of Georgian, based on a collection of annotated sentences selected from the Georgian Language Corpus (GLC) available at http://corpora.iliauni.edu.ge/ and sentences selected from Wiki in accordance with the 132 scientific fields.

The Georgian UD Treebank (UD_Georgian-GLC) serves as the first syntactically annotated corpus of the Georgian language. It includes 151 utterances randomly selected from the GLC (Doborjginidze et al. 2013), providing detailed annotations encompassing the grammatical structure and dependencies within the sentences.

The treebank’s annotations align with the Universal Dependencies (UD) specifications, allowing for greater consistency and compatibility with other UD treebanks. Although the tokenization and segmentation principles of the GLC differ slightly from those of the UD, the UD_Georgian-GLC follows the UD approach, particularly regarding multiword tokens, to minimize differences.

Morpho-syntactic annotations, as discussed in Lobzhanidze (2022), have been automatically adapted to UD requirements. This includes annotations for lemmas (LEMMA), part-of-speech categories (UPOS; XPOS), morphological features (FEATS), transliteration, and tokenization issues (MISC). Furthermore, heads of words (HEADS), dependency relations (DEPREL), and enhanced dependency graphs (DEPS) were automatically converted and then reviewed and manually corrected.

The current version of the UD_Georgian-GLC treebank includes 151 utterances (sentences) or 2123 tokens. By the end of August, the UD_Georgian-GLC will expand to include 3,000 additional sentences selected from geo_wikipedia data. These sentences will serve as a training set, enriching the treebank and offering a more comprehensive representation of the Georgian language. The primary objective is to provide a more comprehensive and representative dataset for training and analysis purposes.


The UD_Georgian-GLC release is based on the data from the Georgian Language Corpus (GLC) developed with the financial support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (Project Nos. DP2016_23, LE/17/1-30/13, AR/320/4-105/11, Y-04-10).

Special gratitudes goes to Prof. Dr. Stavros Skopeteas from the University of Göttingen for his support and valuable comments on the initial data of the UD_Georgian-GLC treebank, Prof. Dr. Benjamin Roth from the University of Vienna for his feedback concerning the training dataset of the UD_Georgian-GLC treebank and to Prof. Dr. Dan Zeman for his invaluable contributions in making the dataset available on GitHub and offering valuable suggestions.


Doborjginidze, N., Lobzhanidze, I., Gunia, I. (2012). Georgian language corpus. See, http://corpora.iliauni.edu.ge/. Accessed 15 July 2023.

Doborjginidze, N., Lobzhanidze, I., Mirianashvili, G. (2014). Corpus of Georgian Chronicles. See, http://corpora.iliauni.edu.ge/. Accessed 15 July 2023.

Lobzhanidze, I. (2022). Finite-State Computational Morphology: An Analyzer and Generator for Georgian. Cham: Springer.

Statistics of UD Georgian GLC

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview