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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Evident: evidentiality

Values: Nfh

Evidentiality is the morphological marking of a speaker’s source of information (Aikhenvald, 2004). In Dargwa, Evidentiality is a feature of the verb. Under the hearsay strategy (Ganenkov 2010), the hearsay marker is placed on the right periphery of finite verbs (and is not followed by any speech verb or quotative particle). The first-hand evidence reading for the statement/event is the default and is not marked in Dargwa. In the treebank, the Fh (first-hand) value is not tagged.

Nfh: non-first hand

The speaker has indirect evidence for the statement. The Nfh marker is also called quotative (QUOT) and citative (CIT) in the literature.


*  ca   adaj-la     k’wi-jal  urši  le-b-re-k’wan

   one  father-Gen  two-Card  son   COP-HumPlur-Past-Nfh

   'A father had (they say) two sons.'


Evident in other languages: [bor] [dar] [gub] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [tr] [u]