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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Portuguese Bosque

Language: Portuguese (code: pt)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Alexandre Rademaker, Cláudia Freitas, Elvis de Souza, Aline Silveira, Tatiana Cavalcanti, Wograine Evelyn, Luisa Rocha, Isabela Soares-Bastos, Eckhard Bick, Fabricio Chalub, Guilherme Paulino-Passos, Livy Real, Valeria de Paiva, Daniel Zeman, Martin Popel, David Mareček, Natalia Silveira, André Martins.

Repository: UD_Portuguese-Bosque
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.6

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: news, blog

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Portuguese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [arademaker (æt) gmail • com]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion

Description

This Universal Dependencies (UD) Portuguese treebank is based on the Constraint Grammar converted version of the Bosque, which is part of the Floresta Sintá(c)tica treebank. It contains both European (CETEMPúblico) and Brazilian (CETENFolha) variants.

This Universal Dependencies (UD) Portuguese treebank is based on the Constraint Grammar converted version of the Bosque, which is part of the Floresta Sintá(c)tica treebank.

Eckhard Bick has maintained since 2008 an experimental version of the dependency Bosque for research, which was not aligned with either the Linguateca published constituent version or the 7.4 dependency version of the Bosque. In 2016, Eckhard Bick wrote UD conversion rules for Constraint Grammar input, and applied these to the updated version of the dependency Bosque (Linguateca site version 7.5 of March 2016).

In October 2016, Alexandre Rademaker, Cláudia Freitas, Fabricio Chalub, Valeria de Paiva and Livy Maria Real Coelho, aiming at full compatibility with ConLL UD specifications, consistency-checked and discussed the 7.5 UD Bosque, leading to a further round of manual treebank corrections and conversion rule changes by Bick. The conversion grammar used contains some 530 rules. Of these 70 were simple feature mapping rules, and 130 were local MWE splitting rules, assigning internal structure, POS and features to MWE’s from the Bosque. The remainder of the rules handle UD-specific dependency and function label changes in a context-dependent fashion. The main issues were raising of copula dependents to subject complements, inversion of prepositional dependency and a change from syntactic to semantic verb chain dependency.

The new UD treebank retains the additional tags for NP definiteness and complex tenses, as well as the original syntactic function tags and secondary morphological tags of the original Bosque. Thus the treebank retains its original linguistic focus, in addition to coping with the machine learning uses targeted by the ConLL UD format.

Acknowledgments

The UD_Portuguese releases 1.2 to 1.4 were based on a different conversion of Bosque, used in the CoNLL-X Shared Task in dependency parsing (2006); the CoNLL version was taken and converted to the Prague dependency style as a part of HamleDT (since 2011). Later versions of HamleDT added a conversion to the Stanford dependencies (2014) and to Universal Dependencies (HamleDT 3.0, 2015).

UD release 1.4 contained two conversions of Bosque: one labeled UD_Portuguese (via CoNLL 2006 and HamleDT) and another labeled UD_Portuguese-Bosque (the new conversion described above).

The two versions were merged (and labeled UD_Portuguese) in UD release 2.0. The merged version is based mostly on the new conversion by Bick et al.. The conversion by Zeman et al. was used to cross-validate. After the alignment of the sentences from the two versions, the data was split in dev, test and train following the distribution of sentences from Zeman et al.

The conversion was implemented by Eckhard Bick and revised mainly by:

(see other contributors below)

The HamleDT conversion was implemented by Dan Zeman and revised by:

Statistics of UD Portuguese Bosque

POS Tags

ADJADPADVAUXCCONJDETINTJNOUNNUMPARTPRONPROPNPUNCTSCONJSYMVERBX

Features

CaseDefiniteDegreeForeignGenderMoodNumberNumTypePersonPolarityPronTypeReflexTenseVerbFormVoice

Relations

aclacl:relcladvcladvmodamodapposauxaux:passcaseccccompcompoundconjcopcsubjdetdiscoursedislocatedexplfixedflatflat:foreignflat:namegoeswithiobjlistmarknmodnsubjnsubj:passnummodobjoblobl:agentorphanparataxispunctreparandumrootvocativexcomp

Tokenization and Word Segmentation

Morphology

Tags

Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features

Syntax

Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview