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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Treebank Statistics: UD_Old_East_Slavic-Birchbark: Features: Voice

This feature is universal but the values Mid are language-specific. It occurs with 3 different values: Act, Mid, Pass.

2892 tokens (11%) have a non-empty value of Voice. 2095 types (18%) occur at least once with a non-empty value of Voice. 670 lemmas (14%) occur at least once with a non-empty value of Voice. The feature is used with 2 part-of-speech tags: VERB (2532; 9% instances), AUX (360; 1% instances).


2532 VERB tokens (98% of all VERB tokens) have a non-empty value of Voice.

The most frequent other feature values with which VERB and Voice co-occurred: Number=Sing (1898; 75%), Mood=EMPTY (1780; 70%), Gender=EMPTY (1716; 68%), VerbForm=Fin (1448; 57%).

VERB tokens may have the following values of Voice:

Paradigm взѧтиActPass
Case=Nom|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=Partвзьмъ, взѧв·ъ, воземо, възъмъвзѧтъ
Case=Nom|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Partвъзмѧ, възьмѧ
Case=Nom|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=Partвозѧто, возѧтъ, възѧто
Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=PartResвъзѧле, взѧле, взѧлъ, възѧлъ, взѧлъ, возѧле, возѧло, (в)зѧло, [въз]ѧ[ле, взѧ, взѧл, взѧло, возѧль, всѧло, въ(зѧ)ль, възалъ, възьль, възѧл[е, възѧль, възѧль], ѹвзѧлъ, ѹзѧле, ꙋзѧле
Gender=Masc|Number=Plur|Tense=Past|VerbForm=PartResвзѧлѣ, взѧли, взѧл[и], взѧл, ѹзѧлѣ
Mood=Imp|Number=Sing|Person=2|VerbForm=Finвозми, възьми, възми, въземи, воземи, (в)[ъ]зми, (в)[ъ]зьми, (в)озьми, (въ)[зъм]и, (въз)ем[и], (възьми), [во]зьми, [възьми], взми, в[ъ]зем[и, в[ъзь]ми, в](озьми), во)з…, возми, во[зм]и, возми, воз[е]ми, возь[м](и), восми, въземи, въз[ь]ми, възмї, възь(ми), възѣми, вьз[ьми]
Mood=Imp|Number=Sing|Person=3|VerbForm=Finв[ъз]ьми, възъми
Mood=Imp|Number=Plur|Person=2|VerbForm=Finвоз(мите), възимить, възмите, възь[ми], …мите
Number=Sing|Person=1|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Finвозмѹ, възмꙋ, възьму
Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Finвозмь, возмете, возметъ, възме, възмете
Number=Plur|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Finвъ·змуть, въземѹ
VerbForm=Infвзѧти, возѧти, възѧти, взѧть, (въ)зѧ[т]и, в)зѧт[и, в[озѧти], возѧти, возѧти, въз[ѧти], възѧти, възѧ[ти, ѹзѧти

Voice seems to be lexical feature of VERB. 95% lemmas (634) occur only with one value of Voice.


360 AUX tokens (96% of all AUX tokens) have a non-empty value of Voice.

The most frequent other feature values with which AUX and Voice co-occurred: VerbForm=Fin (332; 92%), Analyt=Yes (323; 90%), Number=Sing (305; 85%), Tense=Pres (285; 79%).

AUX tokens may have the following values of Voice:

Relations with Agreement in Voice

The 10 most frequent relations where parent and child node agree in Voice: VERB –[conj]–> VERB (306; 85%), VERB –[aux]–> AUX (242; 93%), VERB –[advcl]–> VERB (237; 87%), VERB –[xcomp]–> VERB (76; 86%), VERB –[parataxis]–> VERB (69; 77%), VERB –[ccomp]–> VERB (36; 78%), VERB –[dislocated]–> VERB (20; 80%), VERB –[dep]–> VERB (9; 56%), VERB –[acl]–> VERB (2; 100%), VERB –[dep]–> AUX (2; 100%).