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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Mundurukú

Tokenization and Word Segmentation



This is an overview only. For more detailed discussion and examples, see the list of Mundurukú POS tags and Mundurukú features.

Nominal Features

Verbal Features

Mundurukú has some auxiliary verbs, which are tagged as AUX. The have two specific functions: indicate tense or posture. The table below, shows auxiliaries, giving their functions and giving their plural forms, which for some for some of the verbs have different forms for the singular and plural:

Auxiliary  Tense Posture Plural Meaning
osusnuy past     was/were
oeku past     was/were in movement
osodop past     was/were
dopdom     nuynuy  
g̃uy       remain
jop       remain
cũg̃’i   standing kacũg̃cũg̃’i  
xik’i   sitting kaxikxik’i  
toro’i   hanging katororo’i  
mũg̃’i   leaning kamũg̃mũg̃’i  
po’i   laying kapopo’i  


Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

As a head-marking language, core arguments, except oblique core arguments are cross-referenced on the predicate, as in the example below:




I see her/him/it/them

This is the case only when the object is third-person. For this reason the feature Person takes values combining both arguments (A dn P): Person=13, Person=23, and Person=33. No othe combinations occur.

Non-verbal clauses

Mundurukú has some lexemes that function as copula in non-verbal clauses for existentia and locational predicates. Examples are: opop, kug̃, and kake. These copular elements are not treated as the head of a clause, but rather the dependent of a lexical predicate

Instruction: Give criteria for identifying core arguments (subjects and objects), and describe the range of copula constructions in nonverbal clauses. List all subtype relations used. Include links to language-specific relations definitions if any.


There is 1 Mundurukú UD treebank: