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This page pertains to UD version 2.

csubj:cleft: clausal subject of cleft construction

Again following the Irish treebank, we analyse cleft constructions in Manx in line with other copular constructions: COP PRED SUBJ. In contrast to English, Manx clefts are much less restrictive with regards to the type of element that can be fronted: nouns, prepositional phrases, adjectives and verbal nouns, for example.


Nominal fronting

She sheelaght t' ayn \n Is syllabary that-is in-it
cop(sheelaght, She)
csubj:cleft(sheelaght, t')

Prepositional phrase fronting

Ayns y choorse echeysyn va Ammizabad e vac \n In the course at-himself was Ammizabad his son
case(choorse, Ayns)
det(choorse, y)
csubj:cleft(choorse, va)
nsubj(va, Ammizabad)
det(vac, e)
appos(Ammizabad, vac)

Adjective predicate fronting

S' fardalee ta smooinaghtyn deiney marvaanagh \n Is miserable are thoughts of-men mortal
cop(fardalee, S')
csubj:cleft(fardalee, ta)
nsubj(ta, smooinaghtyn)
nmod(smooinaghtyn, deiney)
amod(deiney, marvaanagh)

csubj:cleft in other languages: [ga] [gd] [gv] [la]