home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Act Antip Cau Dir Inv Mid Pass Rcp

Voice is typically a feature of verbs. It may also occur with other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, adverbs), depending on whether borderline word forms such as gerunds and participles are classified as verbs or as the other category.

For Indo-European speakers, voice means mainly the active-passive distinction. In other languages, other shades of verb meaning are categorized as voice.

Act: active voice

The subject of the verb is the doer of the action (agent), the object is affected by the action (patient).

Examples

Mid: middle voice

Between active and passive, needed e.g. in Ancient Greek or Sanskrit.

Pass: passive voice

The subject of the verb is affected by the action (patient). The doer (agent) is either unexpressed or it appears as an object of the verb.

Examples

Antip: antipassive voice

In ergative-absolutive languages, an ergative subject is demoted to an absolutive subject.

Dir: direct voice

Used in direct-inverse voice systems, e.g. in North American languages. Direct means that the argument that is higher in salience hierarchy is the subject. Example hierarchy: human 1st person – 2nd – 3rd – non-human animate – inanimate.

Inv: inverse voice

Used in direct-inverse voice systems, e.g. in North American languages. Inverse voice marking means that the argument lower in the hierarchy functions as subject.

Rcp: reciprocal voice

Examples

Cau: causative voice

Documentation of the METU Sabanci treebank classifies causative as voice (page 26). Note that this is a feature of verbs. There are languages that have also the causative case of nouns.

Examples


Voice in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]