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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Act Cau Mid Pass Rcp

Voice is a feature of verbs that helps to map the traditional syntactic functions, such as subject and object, to semantic roles, such as agent and patient. See also the related feature subcategorization.

Act: active voice

Prototypically, the subject of the verb is the doer of the action (agent), the object is affected by the action (patient).

By default, the finite and non-finite forms of verbs are labeled Voice=Act, except for the cases when they are labeled Voice=Pass, Voice=Mid or Voice=Cau (see below).


Pass: passive voice

The subject of the verb is affected by the action (patient). The doer (agent) is either a non-obligatory oblique phrase of the verb or not overtly expressed.

The finite and non-finite forms of verbs are labeled Voice=Pass in the passive constructions. In this case, the verbs are marked with passive infixe -վ- (for exeptions see below).


Mid: middle voice

Between active and passive. Needed also for the reflexive, traditionally called medio-passiv (for reciprocal verbs see below); in this case, the verbs are marked with passiv infix -վ- (but the lemma is tagged as non-reflexive). A reflexive voice will be distinguished in future.

Note, that there is a not large set of middle voice verbs marked with passive infix -վ- (so-called passivizied middle verbs). These forms are morphologically very close to the passive, do not have morphologically related non-marked counterparts and are tagged Voice=Mid. If there is a morphologically related non-marked counterpart, than the two verbs are represented by different lemmas (e.g. վերաբերվել .Mid “treat, be about”, but վերաբերել .Act “refer to”).


Cau: causative voice

Note, that in Armenian this is a feature of verbs. In causative constructions the subject is the entity “causing” the action. It is generally translated into English as ‘cause/make/have/let/allow’ someone to perform action described by the main verb.

The causative is expressed by the infix -ցն-. It is quite productive and can be used also for transitivisation of intransitive (middle voice) verbs. They will have Voice=Act, not Voice=Cau (e.g. կորցնել, հանգցնել).

Note, that the auxiliary տալ  (in various tenses and moods) is accombined with infinitve of the content verb to construct the causative voice. Only the auxiliary will have Voice=Cau. There will be also voice information at the infinitive.


Rcp: reciprocal voice

A reciprocal verb describes an event in which two agents (or groups of agents) perform the same action upon each other.

The reciprocal is expressed by the passiv infix -վ- however, the verb roots that can become reciprocal is limited.


Voice in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]