PronType: pronominal type
Prs: personal or possessive personal pronoun or determiner
See also the Poss feature that distinguishes normal personal
pronouns from possessives. Note that
Prs also includes reflexive
personal/possessive pronouns (e.g. [cs] se / svůj; see the
- [en] I, you, he, she, it, we, they, my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, hers, ours, theirs
- [cs] já, ty, on, ona, ono, my, vy, oni, ony, se, můj, tvůj, jeho, její, náš, váš, jejich, svůj
Rcp: reciprocal pronoun
- [de] einander “each other”
- [da] hinanden “each other”
Article is a special case of determiner that bears the feature of definiteness (in other languages, the feature may be marked directly on nouns).
- [en] a, an, the
- [de] ein, eine, der, die, das
- [es] un, una, el, la
Int: interrogative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
Note that possessive interrogative determiners (whose) can be distinguished by the Poss feature.
- [cs/en] kdo / who, co / what, který / which, čí / whose, kolik / how many, how much, kolikátý / how-maniest (ordinal quantifier), kolikrát / how many times, kde / where, kam / where to, kdy / when, jak / how, proč / why
Rel: relative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
Note that in many languages this class heavily overlaps with interrogatives, yet there are pronouns that are only relative, and in some languages (Bulgarian, Hindi) the two classes are distinct.
- [cs] jenž, což “which”, “that” (relative but not interrogative pronouns); jehož “whose” (possessive relative pronoun)
Exc: exclamative determiner
Exclamative pro-adjectives (determiners) express the speaker’s surprise towards the modified noun, e.g. what in “What a surprise!” In many languages, exclamative determiners are recruited from the set of interrogative determiners. Therefore, not all tagsets distinguish them.
- [it] che
- [cs] jaký as in “Jaké překvapení!”
- [en] what as in “What a surprise!”
Dem: demonstrative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
These are often parallel to interrogatives. Some tagsets might also distinguish a separate feature of distance (here / there; [es] aquí / ahí / allí).
- [cs/en] tento / this, tamten / that, takový / such, týž / same, tolik / so much, tolikátý / so-maniest (ordinal number), tolikrát / so many times, tady / here, tam / there, teď / now, tehdy / then, tak / so
Emp: emphatic determiner
Emphatic pro-adjectives (determiners) emphasize the nominal they depend on. There are similarities with reflexive and demonstrative pronouns / determiners.
- [ro] însuși
- [cs] sám
- [en] himself as in “He himself did it.”
Tot: total (collective) pronoun, determiner or adverb
- [cs/en] každý / every, everybody, everyone, each, všechno / everything, all, všude / everywhere, vždy / always
Neg: negative pronoun, determiner or adverb
Negative pronominal words are distinguished from negating particles
and from words that inflect for polarity (verbs, adjectives etc.) Those words
do not use
PronType=Neg, they use
Polarity=Neg instead. See the
Polarity feature for further details.
- [cs/en] nikdo / nobody, nic / nothing, nijaký / no, ničí / no one’s (possessive negative determiner), žádný / no, none, nikde / nowhere, nikdy / never, nijak / no way (lit. “no-how”)
Ind: indefinite pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
Note that some tagsets might further subclassify this category to distinguish “some” from “any” etc. Such distinctions are not part of universal features but may be added in language-specific extensions.
- [cs/en] někdo / somebody, něco / something, některý / some, něčí / someone’s (possessive indefinite pronoun), několik / a few, several (indefinite numeral/quantifier), několikátý / “a fewth”, “severalth” (indefinite ordinal numeral), několikrát / a few times, several times, někde / somewhere, někdy / sometimes, nějak / somehow
- [cs/en] kdokoli / anybody, cokoli / anything, kterýkoli / any, číkoli / anyone’s (possessive indefinite pronoun), kdekoli / anywhere, kdykoli / any time, jakkoli / anyhow
- [cs/en] málokdo / few people, leckdo / quite a few people, kdosi / somebody…
PronType in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]