Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.
The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.
- [cs] Studuješ na univerzitě. “You study at the university.”
- [de] Du studierst an der Universität. “You study at the university.”
- [tr] eve gidiyor “she is going home”
- [tr] eve gitti “she went home”
The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.
- [cs] Studuj na univerzitě! “Study at the university!”
- [de] Studiere an der Universität! “Study at the university!”
- [tr] eve git “go home!”
- [tr] eve gidin “go home!” (plural)
- [tr] eve gitsin “[let him] go home!” (3rd person imperative)
The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen. Grammars of some languages may classify conditional as tense (rather than mood) but e.g. in Czech it combines with two different tenses (past and present).
- [cs] Kdybych byl chytrý, studoval bych na univerzitě. “If I were smart I would study at the university” (note that only the auxiliary bych is specific to conditional; the active participle byl is also needed to analytically form the conditional mood, however, it will only be tagged as participle because it can also be used to form past tense indicative.)
- [tr] eve gittiyse “if she went home”
- [tr] eve gidiyorsa “if she is going home”
- [tr] eve giderse “if she goes home”
- [tr] eve gidecekdiyse “if she was going to go home”
The action of the verb is possible but not certain. This mood corresponds to the modal verbs can, might, be able to. Used e.g. in Finnish.
- [tr] eve gidebilir “she can go home”
- [tr] eve gidemeyebilir “she may not be able to go home”
Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive
The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain. In German, it may be also used to convey the conditional meaning.
- [fr] Je veux que tu le fasses “I want you to do it” lit. I want that you it do.Sub
The jussive mood expresses the desire that the action happens; it is thus close to both imperative and optative. Unlike in desiderative, it is the speaker, not the subject who wishes that it happens. Used e.g. in Arabic.
Means “in order to”, occurs in Amazonian languages.
The quotative mood is used e.g. in Estonian to denote direct speech.
Expresses exclamations like “May you have a long life!” or “If only I were rich!” In Turkish it also expresses suggestions.
- [tr] eve gidelim ‘let’s go home’
The desiderative mood corresponds to the modal verb “want to”: “He wants to come.” Used e.g. in Turkish.
The necessitative mood expresses necessity and corresponds to the modal verbs “must, should, have to”: “He must come.”
- [tr] eve gitmeli ‘she should go home’
- [tr] eve gitmeliydi ‘she should have gone home’
Expresses surprise, irony or doubt. Occurs in Albanian, other Balkan languages, and in Caddo (Native American from Oklahoma).
Mood in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]