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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Mood: mood

Values: Adm Cnd Des Imp Ind Jus Nec Opt Pot Prp Qot Sub

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.

Examples

Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.

Examples

Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen. Grammars of some languages may classify conditional as tense (rather than mood) but e.g. in Czech it combines with two different tenses (past and present).

Examples

Pot: potential

The action of the verb is possible but not certain. This mood corresponds to the modal verbs can, might, be able to. Used e.g. in Finnish.

Examples

Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive

The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain. In German, it may be also used to convey the conditional meaning.

Examples

Jus: jussive

The jussive mood expresses the desire that the action happens; it is thus close to both imperative and optative. Unlike in desiderative, it is the speaker, not the subject who wishes that it happens. Used e.g. in Arabic.

Prp: purposive

Means “in order to”, occurs in Amazonian languages.

Qot: quotative

The quotative mood is used e.g. in Estonian to denote direct speech.

Opt: optative

Expresses exclamations like “May you have a long life!” or “If only I were rich!” In Turkish it also expresses suggestions.

Examples

Des: desiderative

The desiderative mood corresponds to the modal verb “want to”: “He wants to come.” Used e.g. in Turkish.

Nec: necessitative

The necessitative mood expresses necessity and corresponds to the modal verbs “must, should, have to”: “He must come.”

Examples

Adm: admirative

Expresses surprise, irony or doubt. Occurs in Albanian, other Balkan languages, and in Caddo (Native American from Oklahoma).


Mood in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]