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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Mood: mood

Values: Cnd Imp Ind Nec Sub

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms. Some mood markers also interact with tense and aspect of the verb.

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.

Examples

Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.

Examples

Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen. In Armenian it combines with two different tenses (imperfect and present).

The negation of conditional mood is formed periphrastically using the special form of main verb (traditionally called negative participle) and negated auxiliary չեմ “not to be”. The main verb is marked as Connegative.

Examples

Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive / optative

The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain. In some contexts the mood expresses also the desire that the action happens; it is thus close to both optative and jussive. In Armenian it combines with two different tenses (imperfect and present).

Examples

Nec: necessitative

The necessitative mood expresses necessity and corresponds to the modal verbs “must, should, have to”.

Armenian has present and imperfect necessitative, both formed periphrastically using the mood particle պիտի or the impersonal predicative պետք է. The content verb expresses person, number, tense, aspect, voice and is in subjunctive mood.

The mood particle պիտի is historically present tense of the verb պիտիմ (Ind, Sing, Person=3) “to by necessary, useful”. The impersonal predicative պետք է “lit: is needed” accompanied with subjunctive finite form of verbs is used as a variant of mood particle. This expresses compulsary, oblicative necessity.

The content verb is not marked as necessitative because it can also be used in present or imperfect subjunctive. The mood particles will have Mood=Nec. They can also inflect for Polarity (e.g. չպիտի, չպետք է).

Examples


Mood in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]