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Mood: mood

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.


Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.


Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen. Grammars of some languages may classify conditional as tense (rather than mood) but e.g. in Czech it combines with two different tenses (past and present).


Pot: potential

The action of the verb is likely but not certain. Used e.g. in Finnish.

Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive

The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain. In German, it may be also used to convey the conditional meaning.


Jus: jussive

The jussive mood expresses the desire that the action happens. Used e.g. in Arabic.

Qot: quotative

The quotative mood is used e.g. in Estonian to denote direct speech.

Opt: optative

Used e.g. in Turkish in exclamations like “May you have a long life!” or “If only I were rich!”

Des: desiderative

The desiderative mood corresponds to the modal verb “want to”: “He wants to come.” Used e.g. in Turkish.

Nec: necessitative

The necessitative mood corresponds to the modal verbs “must, should, have to”: “He must come.” Used e.g. in Turkish.

Mood in other languages: [bg] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fr] [ga] [he] [hu] [it] [ja] [ko] [sv] [u]