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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Yorùbá

Tokenization and Word Segmentation







Yoruba uses 2 relation subtypes:


There is only one Yorùbá UD treebank at present:


This section will probably be moved to a separate page. Examples are taken from the Language Gulper.

The default interpretation of the bare verb stem is the past tense.

Olú ra aga \n Olú buy chair
nsubj(ra, Olú)
obj(ra, aga)

“Olu bought a chair.”

The imperfective auxiliary ń is used to refer to an action in progress in the past or present, or to a habitual action.

Wọ́n ń jó \n They IMPF play
nsubj(jó, Wọ́n)
aux(jó, ń)

“They are (were) playing.”

The perfective auxiliary ti denotes a completed action.

Ó ti lọ \n He/she PERF go
nsubj(lọ, Ó)
aux(lọ, ti)

“He/she has gone.”

The auxiliaries á/ó/yió denote the future tense.

ọ̀rẹ́ mi á lọ \n friend my FUT go
nmod(ọ̀rẹ́, mi)
nsubj(lọ, ọ̀rẹ́)
aux(lọ, á)

“My friend will go.”

A combination of the imperfective/progressive and perfective auxiliaries indicates the beginning of an action in the past (progressive perfect).

Mo ti ń gba lẹ́tà rẹ \n I PERF IMPF receive letter your
nsubj(gba, Mo)
aux(gba, ti)
aux(gba, ń)
obj(gba, lẹ́tà)
nmod(lẹ́tà, rẹ)

“I have started to receive your letters.”

If the verb has two objects, the second one is preceded by the preposition . Therefore the second object is treated as an oblique argument in UD.

Ó kọ wa ní Yorùbá \n He teach us to Yoruba
nsubj(kọ, Ó)
obj(kọ, wa)
obl(kọ, Yorùbá)
case(Yorùbá, ní)

“He taught us Yoruba.”

There are serial verb constructions, in which several verbs appear in a sequence without any intervening coordinator or subordinator. They share tense-aspect markers if any, and they may share arguments, although an argument may have different roles with respect to different verbs in the chain. Some of these constructions could be annotated as either compound:svc or xcomp. Precise criteria have yet to be formulated.

Ó gbé e wá \n He/she carry it come
nsubj(gbé, Ó)
obj(gbé, e)
compound:svc(gbé, wá)

“He/she brought it.”

Ó tì mí ṣubú \n He/she push me fall
nsubj(tì, Ó)
obj(tì, mí)
compound:svc(tì, ṣubú)

“He/she pushed me and I fell.”

Two transitive verbs combined may have each their own object.

Ó pọn omi kún kete \n He/she draw water fill pot
nsubj(pọn, Ó)
obj(pọn, omi)
compound:svc(pọn, kún)
obj(kún, kete)

“He/she drew water and filled the pot.”

But there can also be one shared object:

Ade ń ra ẹran jẹ \n Ade IMPF buy meat eat
nsubj(ra, Ade)
aux(ra, ń)
obj(ra, ẹran)
compound:svc(ra, jẹ)

“Ade is buying meat and eating it.”

In focus constructions, a constituent is placed at the front and marked by the morpheme ni. Normal sentence without focus:

Olú ra ìwé \n Olú buy book
nsubj(ra, Olú)
obj(ra, ìwé)

“Olú bought a book.”

Object focus:

Ìwé ni Olú rà \n Book FOC Olú buy
nsubj(rà, Olú)
obj(rà, Ìwé)
case(Ìwé, ni)

“It was a book that Olú bought.”

If the subject is focused, there must be a pronoun at the subject position. We treat this as an instance of clitic doubling: the fronted noun phrase is analyzed as the subject, and the pronoun is attached as an expletive:

Olú ni ó ra ìwé \n Olú FOC he buy book
nsubj(ra, Olú)
case(Olú, ni)
expl(ra, ó)
obj(ra, ìwé)

“It was Olú who bought the book.”

Oblique dependent focus:

Ní ilé ni ó ti bẹ̀rẹ̀ \n At house FOC it PERF start
case(ilé, Ní)
case(ilé, ni)
obl(bẹ̀rẹ̀, ilé)
nsubj(bẹ̀rẹ̀, ó)
aux(bẹ̀rẹ̀, ti)

“It was in the house that it started.”

The verb can be fronted in its nominalized form. It must be then repeated as a verb.

Rírà ni bàbá ra bàtà \n Buying FOC father buy shoes
case(Rírà, ni)
dislocated(ra, Rírà)
nsubj(ra, bàbá)
obj(ra, bàtà)

“Father bought shoes.”