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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Style: style or sublanguage to which this word form belongs

Values: Arch Coll Expr Form Rare Slng Vrnc Vulg

This may be a lexical feature (some words-lemmas are archaic, some are colloquial) or a morphological feature (inflectional patterns may systematically change between dialects or styles). English pronouns offer a useful case study: thou is archaic; whom is often somewhat formal; ya is colloquial, used in a casual/familiar way (See ya!); y’all is vernacular (especially associated with certain regions); and wtf is arguably an expressive variant of the pronoun what in contexts where a nominal is required (Wtf are you doing?!).

Besides real morphology, the choices that make a particular word form belong to a different style may also be orthographic.

This feature could be used in many languages but only a few choose to actually annotate it. Seen in Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, English, Finnish and Hungarian.

Arch: archaic, obsolete

This value should be used if it is desirable in a language to mark archaic lexemes or archaic morphological forms. Language-specific guidelines must define what exactly it means to be archaic. Note that there are theoretical problems, especially if we want to annotate diachronic corpora with various stages of the language. There is only one set of guidelines per language, which should accommodate all stages and genres. It would be unfortunate if most words in older texts had to be labeled as Style=Arch. Hence, the only useful application of the feature is probably for words that were already archaic at the time of production of the text.


Rare: rare


Form: formal, literary


Coll: colloquial


Vrnc: vernacular


Slng: slang


Expr: expressive, emotional

This indicates a distinctive morphological or spelling choice for added expressiveness (with respect to pronunciation or meaning).

In the case of an expressive spelling variant, this feature should be paired with a CorrectForm in the MISC column, as explained in the page on typos. Compare the Typo feature, which covers errors and typographical unexpectedness.


Vulg: vulgar


Style in other languages: [cs] [fi] [hy] [mdf] [u] [yrl]