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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Manx

Tokenization and Word Segmentation

Generally speaking, tokens in Manx are delimited by whitespace characters and punctuation, with the following exceptions:



Strooys dy row aggle orroo \n Methinks that was fear on-them
mark(row, dy)
ccomp(Strooys, row)
nsubj(row, aggle)


The initial version of the Cadhan Aonair Manx treebank does not specify any morphological features, although we hope to add these to a future version.


The basic word order of Manx is VSO, like the other Celtic languages:

Ren my ven yn soo shen jea \n Made my wife the jam this yesterday
det(ven, my)
nsubj(Ren, ven)
det(soo, yn)
obj(Ren, soo)
det(soo, shen)
advmod(Ren, jea)

The copula she is annotated as follows:

She yn Vritaan y lieh-innys smoo 'sy Rank \n It-is the Brittany the peninsula biggest in-the France
cop(Vritaan, She)
det(Vritaan, yn)
det(lieh-innys, y)
nsubj(Vritaan, lieh-innys)
amod(lieh-innys, smoo)
case(Rank, 'sy)
nmod(lieh-innys, Rank)

Verbal nouns play an important role in Manx grammar, and they are annotated following the guidelines for Irish and Scottish Gaelic. As noted above, they are always given the POS tag NOUN and very often labeled as xcomp of some higher verb:

T' ad faagail bee ec oaieyn ny merriu \n are they leaving food at graves the dead
nsubj(T', ad)
xcomp(T', faagail)
obj(faagail, bee)
case(oaieyn, ec)
obl(faagail, oaieyn)
det(merriu, ny)
nmod(oaieyn, merriu)

Note that the object follows the verbal noun in the case above; in other constructions it precedes the verbal noun:

Nee eh yn thie y lhieggal \n Will-do he the house to knock-down
nsubj(Nee, eh)
det(thie, yn)
obj(lhieggal, thie)
mark(lhieggal, y)
xcomp(Nee, lhieggal)

The substantive verb bee “to be” (Irish , Scottish Gaelic bi) can have predicate complements in the form of adverbial, adjectival, or prepositional phrases; these are distinct from copular constructions in Manx. Following the Irish model, we label these complements with the extended tag xcomp:pred:

Ta 'n lioar ass clou \n is the book out-of print
det(lioar, 'n)
nsubj(Ta, lioar)
case(clou, ass)
xcomp:pred(Ta, clou)

The Manx treebank uses 31 of the 37 dependency relations in v2 of the UD guidelines (all but expl, dislocated, aux, clf, list, and goeswith). In addition, there are six subtype relations represented as well; all but flat:foreign are used in the Irish treebank.


There is one Manx UD treebank: