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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Guajajara

Tokenization and Word Segmentation



jawar pinim jaguar spotted ‘spotted jaguar’

he=∅-keneʔo 1.SG=Cont-tired ‘I am tired / I have tiredness’

he=∅-ʔaw 1.SG=Cont-hair ‘I have hair’

Particle Function Example
raʔa Dubitative Umaiʔu kwaharer aʔe raʔa ‘Has he already eaten?’ (Camargo et. al 2019: 835)
nehe Intention Aha putar aipo pe nehe ‘I intend to go there’ (cf. Harrison and Harrison 2013: 11)
riʔi Certainty  
rihi Permission/Possibility/Exhortation  
ADV adv
INTJ intj
VERB v, vi, vt
ADP posp
AUX aux
DET det
NUM num
PART pcl
PRON pro
PUNCT punct
SYM sym
X x

Nominal Features

U-puez u-kamir wà 3-wash 3.Corf-clothe PL ‘They wash their clothes’ (Harrison and Harrison 2013: 205)

Person Possessor indexes Argument indexes Inependent pronouns
1.SG he= a- ihe
2.SG ne= ere- ne
3   u- aʔe (demonstrative)
1.PL.IN zane= xi- / za- zane
1.PL.EX ure= uru- uré
2.PL pe= pe- pe
Case Ending Example
Translative -(r)omo / -(r)umu xixirogaturumu ‘transformed in different species’
Allative -pe ʔɨ pe ‘to the lake’
Locative -pe ko pe ‘in the field’
Temporal -re aʔere ‘after it’
Dative -pe izupe ‘to him/her/it’

The relational markers Rel, which indicate contiguity or non-contiguity between a head and its dependent, take respectively the following features: Rel=Cont and Rel=NCont. A third type or relational indicates that a possessor is not present, neither contiguously or non-contiguously. This relational is tagged Rel=Abs, for absolute. The reflexive/correferential morpheme u. which is often referred to as ‘relational3’ is associated with the feature-value Reflex=Yes. These are shown below:

Rel Form(s) Example
Cont ∅ ~ r he-∅-hɨ ‘I have a mother’
NCont i ~ h i-hɨ ‘his/her/its/their mother’
Abs t t-ɨwɨr ‘his/her/their younger brother’
Corf u u-hɨ ‘his/her/its/their own mother’



Guajajara has many nominalizers with different functions. Lexical roots can be nominalized by suffixes that receive the following features: nominalization of circunstance Nomzr=Circ (-haw ‘thing, way of VERB’), passive nominalization Nomzr=Pas, deverbal passive nominalization Nomzr=DevPass (-pɨr ‘one that is VERB past participle’), Nomzr=Ag(-har ‘the VERB-_er_’).

Nominalizer function Example
(e)mi- passive deverbalizer h-emi-eka ‘what is expected/waited for’.
-maʔe relativizer u-zegar-maʔe ‘the one who sings’.
-pɨr passive deverbalizer i-zuká-pɨr ‘the one who must be killed’
-har agentive nominalizer i-zan-har ‘the one who runs’.
-haw circunstantial nominalizer i-ker-haw ‘occasion/place/mode/instrument of sleeping’

Verbal Features


Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

As a head-marking language, core arguments, except oblique core arguments may be cross-referenced on the predicate, as in the example below:




He/She/They do it/them


There are N Guajajara UD treebanks:

Instruction: Treebank-specific pages are generated automatically from the README file in the treebank repository and from the data in the latest release. Link to the respective *-index.html page in the treebanks folder, using the language code and the treebank code in the file name.