home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Chinese PUD

Language: Chinese (code: zh)
Family: Sino-Tibetan

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.1 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Hans Uszkoreit, Vivien Macketanz, Aljoscha Burchardt, Kim Harris, Katrin Marheinecke, Slav Petrov, Tolga Kayadelen, Mohammed Attia, Ali Elkahky, Zhuoran Yu, Emily Pitler, Saran Lertpradit, Josie Li, Cheuk Ying Li, Martin Popel, Daniel Zeman, Herman Leung.

Repository: UD_Chinese-PUD
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ

License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Genre: news, wiki

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Chinese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [zeman (æt) ufal • mff • cuni • cz]. The UD version of this treebank currently does not have a maintainer. If you know the language and want to help, please consider adopting the treebank.

Annotation Source
Lemmas not available
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This is a part of the Parallel Universal Dependencies (PUD) treebanks created for the CoNLL 2017 shared task on Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies.

There are 1000 sentences in each language, always in the same order. (The sentence alignment is 1-1 but occasionally a sentence-level segment actually consists of two real sentences.) The sentences are taken from the news domain (sentence id starts in ‘n’) and from Wikipedia (sentence id starts with ‘w’). There are usually only a few sentences from each document, selected randomly, not necessarily adjacent. The digits on the second and third position in the sentence ids encode the original language of the sentence. The first 750 sentences are originally English (01). The remaining 250 sentences are originally German (02), French (03), Italian (04) or Spanish (05) and they were translated to other languages via English. Translation into German, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, Hindi, Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Thai and Turkish has been provided by DFKI and performed (except for German) by professional translators. Then the data has been annotated morphologically and syntactically by Google according to Google universal annotation guidelines; finally, it has been converted by members of the UD community to UD v2 guidelines.

Additional languages have been provided (both translation and native UD v2 annotation) by other teams: Czech by Charles University, Finnish by University of Turku and Swedish by Uppsala University.

The entire treebank is labeled as test set (and was used for testing in the shared task). If it is used for training in future research, the users should employ ten-fold cross-validation.


Statistics of UD Chinese PUD

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview