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This page pertains to UD version 2.


This section of the syntax overview is devoted to nominals. The UD annotation assumes the nominal, or noun phrase, as one of the basic structures that we expect to find in all languages. A nominal minimally consists of a noun, proper noun or pronoun.

hon såg filmen . \n she saw the-film
obj(såg, filmen)
hon såg Batman \n she saw Batman
obj(såg, Batman)
hon såg den \n she saw it
obj(såg, den)

Modifier Dependents

A nominal head does not take any core arguments but may be associated with different types of modifiers:

  1. An nmod is a nominal phrase modifying the head of another nominal phrase, with or without a special case marker. Treebanks may optionally use nmod:poss to distinguish non-adpositional possessives.
  2. An appos is a nominal phrase that follows the head of another nominal phrase and stands in a co-reference or other equivalence relation to it.
  3. An amod is an adjective modifying the head of a nominal phrase.
  4. A nummod is a numeral modifying the head of a nominal phrase.
  5. An acl is a clause modifying the head of a nominal phrase, with the relative clause acl:relcl as an important subtype.
the office of the Chair
nmod(office-2, Chair-5)
the Chair 's office
nmod:poss(office-4, Chair-2)
Sam , the manager
appos(Sam, manager)
Sam eats red meat
amod(meat, red)
Sam spent forty dollars
nummod(dollars, forty)
Sam spent everything he had
acl:relcl(everything, had)
Sam spent everything that he had
acl:relcl(everything, had)
obj(had, that)

Function Word Dependents

Nominals may also contain the following typical function word dependents:

the Chair 's office
det(Chair-2, the-1)
nmod(office-4, Chair-2)
case(Chair-2, 's-3)
the office of the Chair
det(office-2, the-1)
nmod(office-2, Chair-5)
case(Chair-5, of-3)
det(Chair-5, the-4)
sān gè xuéshēng \n three clf student
nummod(xuéshēng, sān)
clf(sān, gè)