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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Madi

Tokenization and Word Segmentation


Mapping UPOS to XPOS Tupinambá

ADJ adj
ADV adv
INTJ intj
VERB v, vc, vi, vt, vd
ADP posp
AUX aux
DET det
NUM num
PART prcl
PRON pro
PUNCT punct
SYM sym
X x

vc is the verbal copula.



Jarawara distinguishes three numbers: singular, dual, and plural.


Inamatewe amo-ka
baby(M) sleep-DECL.M
'The baby (boy) is sleeping'
Inamatewe amo-ke
baby(F) sleep-DECL.F
'The baby (girl) is sleeping'
Okomobi moni ama-ka
Okomobi sound be-DECL.M
'It's Okomobi's sound'
Hinabori moni ama-ke
Okomobi sound be-DECL.F
'It's Hinabori's sound'

Person indexes

Person/Number/Animacy Slot 1 Slot 2 and 8 Cardinal indexes Alienamble possessor Inalienamble possessor
1 SG owa o- owa oko o-, oko
2 SG tiwa ti- tiwa tika fee ~ hee
3 SG inanimate          
1 PL.IN era ee- e ee kaa ee
1 PL.EX otara otaa- ota otaa kaa otaa
2 NSG tera tee- te tee kaa tee
3 NSG animate me, mera mee- me mee kaa mee

Slot 1: O function in transitive predicates Slot 2: A, S or copula subject function Slot 8: the function of the indexes depend on the type of constructions (O or A). Always S in intransitive predicates. Possessor in an NP, A in AC. In OC, it can be A or O.

The absence of an index (S, A, or O) indicates the argument in 3SG.

Number sit stand
Singular -ita- -wa-
Dual joro -na- or teme -na- (in free alternation) joro -na- or teme -na- (in free alternation)
Plural naho- for an animate and sii -na- for an inanimate S argument joro -na- or teme -na- (in free alternation)

Verbal Features

'I have just eaten'

kobo o-na-hara
'I have just arrived'

A group of suffixes with adverbial are clause-final modifiers:

Suffix Meaning
-mina in the morning, tomorrow
-baha do first
-rama unusual, unexpected
-tasa do again
-bisa also
-mata short time
-waha now, the next thing, then
-makoni unusual, take no responsability for

Verbal Aspect

Suffix Aspect
-te habitual
-ne continuous

Predicate Structure

The predicate has elements that are obligatory and others that are optional. In total there are eleven slots, which are filled by prefixes, suffixes, and separate words.

Slot 1

cross-references O. Obligatory in transitive clauses. Must be singular.

Slot 2

cross-references S or A. Non-singular = separate word, and singular = prefix.

Slot 3

3.1 singular subject index prefixes (1SG o-, 2SG ti-); hi-, used in an OC when both A and O are 3rd person; or to- ‘away’;

3.2 applicative ka-

3.3 causative na ~ niha-

Slot 4

predicate (verb root) (few exceptions)

*Slot 5


*Slot 6

56 different suffixes (highly complex): negation

*Slot 7 (Tense + Evidentiality)

Suffix Tense + Evidentiality
-(hV)ra/e Immediate past + attested
-(hV)ni/o Immediate past + non-attested
-(hV)ro/i Recent past + attested
-(hV)te/a Recent past + non-attested
-(hV)maro/i Far past + attested
-(hV)mete -mata Far past + non-attested
-(hV)bone/a Intentional
-(hV)ba(na) Future
-(hV)ne/a Irrealis
-(hV)mene/mana Hypothetical
-(hV)mone/mona Reportative

*Slot 8

index: S in an intransitive clause, to A in an AC, and to either O or A in an OC.

*Slot 9

secondary verbs: ama ‘extended in time’ or awine/awa ‘seems’, optional.

*Slot 10

`mood suffixes (optional) and markers of dependent clause:

Suffix Mood
-ke/ka Declarative
-ni/ne Backgrounding
-habone/-hibona Interrogative
-hamone/-himona Imperative
-*kani/kani * Counterfactual
-nihi/noho Climax
-be(ja)/ba(ja) Immediate
-makoni/mako Take no responsability
-rihi/rihi. Contrastive negation

Slot 11

many tense-modal forms (from slot 7), negation (from slot 6).

Example of predicate with eight slots:

[jomee]o [∅      otaa  kobo ra-ba     otaa awine-ke]
jaguar(M) 3SG.O  1EX.A meet NEG-FUT.F 1EX SEEM.F-DEC.F
          A       B    D     F G      H     I    H
it is not likely that we will see a jaguar


A fundamental distinction in Jarawara concerns transitive clauses. The linking of clauses are based on the pivot, which is not syntactically restricted (S/A or S/O). One type of transitive construction has A as pivot (AC = A-construction), and another type has O pivot (OC = O-construction).

John Mary awa-ka 
John.A Mary.O see-DECL.M
'John saw Watati'
Mary John hi-wa hi-ke 
Mary.O John.A OC-see OC-DECL.F
'John saw Mary'

In order to say ‘John came in and saw Mary’, one has the option of choosing which construction is more suitable for the context of discource:

John ki-joma-ke-ka, ∅<sub>A</sub> Mary awa-ka 
John be.in.motion-THROUGH-COMING-DECL.M Mary see-DECL.M
'John came in and saw Mary'
 Mary ki-joma-ke-ke, ∅<sub>o</sub> John hi-wa hi ke 
John be.in.motion-THROUGH-COMING-DECL.F John OC-see OC-DECL.F
'John came in and saw Mary'


There are two auxiliaries in Jarawara, which

We do not treat auxiliaries as constituents, since they do not contribute any semantic meaning to the sentence. They are just required with certain verbs and certain suffixes. For example, in the sentence below.

Boni ihi awa boto tonahani amake
The tree fell over because of the wind

the verb boto tonahani amake is seen as a single word bototonahaniamake, and in the morphology not have anything corresponding to the auxiliary na.

One of the advantages of this approach is that we don’t have to worry about what to do with auxiliaries that are required by certain suffixes. For example -kanikima ‘scattered’ requires a following auxiliary na, and it is required that -waharI be attached to an auxiliary na.

One problem that arises with this approach is how to treat to- when it occurs with the auxiliary ha. The to- is simply required whenever the auxiliary ha occurs, as it also is with the copular verb ha. We could simply not register to- in the morphology in these two cases, since it is just required, and doesn’t really contribute anything to the meaning.

It is still necessary to register to- when it is ‘away’, and when the ‘CH’ meaning occurs not associated with ha.

Noun Phrase

Noun phrases occur in slot 2 and 5.

Possessive NPs are of two types: alienable and inalienable.

Inalienable possession is a simple juxtaposition:

John teme
John foot.M
'John's foot'

Alienable possession require a postpositional possessive marker *ka*:

John ka tao.kana John POSS gun.F ‘Jon’s gun’

amise tame
aunt.F foot.F
'Aunt's foot'

In the example below, there is embedding (alienable + inalienable possession).

[amise ka] jome teme
aunt.F POSS dog.M foot.M
'Aunt's dog's foot'

All possessed NPs in Jarawara are third person.

An NP can function as a copula subject:

Manoware ka yobe hawa towareka Manoware ka yobe hawa to-ha-hare-ka Manoware POSS house be.ready INC-AUX-IPAST.EVID.M-DECL.M Manoware’s house is ready

The contrastive marker ta appears at the end of an NP. It can only be followed by the obsolete suffix -ra.


There is 1 Jarawara UD treebank:

Instruction: Treebank-specific pages are generated automatically from the README file in the treebank repository and from the data in the latest release. Link to the respective *-index.html page in the treebanks folder, using the language code and the treebank code in the file name.

Instruction: Describe inherent and inflectional features for major word classes (at least NOUN and VERB). Describe other noteworthy features. Include links to language-specific feature definitions if any.

Instruction: Give criteria for identifying core arguments (subjects and objects), and describe the range of copula constructions in nonverbal clauses. List all subtype relations used. Include links to language-specific relations definitions if any.


There are N Madi UD treebanks:

Instruction: Treebank-specific pages are generated automatically from the README file in the treebank repository and from the data in the latest release. Link to the respective *-index.html page in the treebanks folder, using the language code and the treebank code in the file name.