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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Bororo

Tokenization and Word Segmentation

Bororo uses all 18 tags. Words are delimited by a whitespace.


Instruction: Describe the general rules for delimiting words (for example, based on whitespace and punctuation) and exceptions to these rules. Specify whether words with spaces and/or multiword tokens occur. Include links to further language-specific documentation if available.




The `gender of nouns in Bororo follow the natural gender of the animate nouns, i.e., males take masculine gender and females take feminine gender. Inanimate nouns are genderless but morphologically they follow the masculine pattern.


There are different ways of forming the plural of nouns in Bororo: deleting the last syllables of nouns ending in -\textit{edu}, substituting the last vowel by \textit{e}, adding \textit{e} to the singular form, adding -\textit{doge} to the stem, adding -\textit{ge} to nouns ending in -\textit{reu}, -\textit{wu}, -\textit{epa}, -\textit{are}. There are also instances of irregular plural forms, ablaut with change of final vowel, and some forms that do not vary in the plural.


Person indexes

Person Before consonant Before vowel
1S i- it-, in-, ik-
2S a- ak-
3S , u-  
3Anaf tu-, pu- t-, tud-, pud-,
1PL.EX ce- ced-, cen-, ceg-
1PL.IN pa- pag-
2PL ta- tag-
3PL e- et-, en-, ek-
3Anaf tu-, pu- t-, tud-, pud-,

The first plural of person indexes distinguish between the values Ex (exclusive) and In (inclusive) for the feature Clusivity

Imi iia
imi i-ia
I 1SG-mouth
my mouth

Instruction: Specify any unused tags. Explain what words are tagged as PART. Describe how the AUX-VERB and DET-PRON distinctions are drawn, and specify whether there are (de)verbal forms tagged as ADJ, ADV or NOUN. Include links to language-specific tag definitions if any.



Instruction: Describe inherent and inflectional features for major word classes (at least NOUN and VERB). Describe other noteworthy features. Include links to language-specific feature definitions if any.


Bororo is an ergative language. The only argument of an intransitive verb (absolutive) is marked by agreement on the verb.


For transitive verbs, the only agreement marker on the verb is that of the patient (absolutive) argument.

adugore emage ewido
adugo-re e-mage e-bito
jaguar-ASS they 3PL-kill
The jaguar killed them

Instruction: Give criteria for identifying core arguments (subjects and objects), and describe the range of copula constructions in nonverbal clauses. List all subtype relations used. Include links to language-specific relations definitions if any.


There are N Bororo UD treebanks:

Instruction: Treebank-specific pages are generated automatically from the README file in the treebank repository and from the data in the latest release. Link to the respective *-index.html page in the treebanks folder, using the language code and the treebank code in the file name.