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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD for Bororo

Tokenization and Word Segmentation

Mapping UPOS to XPOS Akuntsú

ADJ adj
ADV adv
INTJ intj
VERB v, vi, vt
ADP pp
AUX aux
DET det
NUM num
PART pcl
PRON pron, bi
PUNCT punct
SYM sym
X x




The `gender of nouns in Bororo follow the natural gender of the animate nouns, i.e., males take masculine gender and females take feminine gender or the word ‘female,woman’. Inanimate nouns are genderless but morphologically they follow the masculine pattern. Based on natural gender, some nouns may be marked as feminine. Modifiers may take gender mark (agreement) only in the feminine singular.


There are different ways of forming the plural of nouns in Bororo: deleting the last syllables of nouns ending in -edu, substituting the last vowel by -e, adding e to the singular form, adding -doge to the stem, adding -ge to nouns ending in -rewy, -wy, -epa, -are. There are also instances of irregular plural forms, ablaut with change of final vowel, and some forms that do not vary in the plural.


Person indexes

Person Before consonant Before vowel
1S i- it-, in-, ik-
2S a- ak-
3S , u-  
3Anaf tu-, pu- t-, tud-, pud-,
1PL.EX ce- ced-, cen-, ceg-
1PL.IN pa- pag-
2PL ta- tag-
3PL e- et-, en-, ek-
3Anaf tu-, pu- t-, tud-, pud-,

The first plural of person indexes distinguish between the values Ex (exclusive) and In (inclusive) for the feature Clusivity

my mouth
Your axe

Instruction: Specify any unused tags. Explain what words are tagged as PART. Describe how the AUX-VERB and DET-PRON distinctions are drawn, and specify whether there are (de)verbal forms tagged as ADJ, ADV or NOUN. Include links to language-specific tag definitions if any.

Bororo has no copula an no auxiliary verbs.



Instruction: Describe inherent and inflectional features for major word classes (at least NOUN and VERB). Describe other noteworthy features. Include links to language-specific feature definitions if any.


Bororo is an ergative language. S, A, and O are marked by the same set of bound indexes. But the construction where S and O appear are the same, i.e, they attach to the predicate. A is always marked by a bound index which carries TMA and negation markers, detached from the predicate.


The A argument of transitive verbs is indexed on the mood or aspect marker, and the O argumend is bound to verb.

adygore emage ewido
adygo=re emage e=bito
jaguar=IND they 3.PL=kill
The jaguar killed them
adygore ewido
adygo=re e=bito
jaguar=IND 3.PL=kill
The jaguar killed them
Ure ewido
u=re e=bito
3.SG=IND 3.PL=kill
The jaguar killed them

In transitive clauses, nothing may intervene between the A argument and the O-predicate slot. Adjuncts follow the predicate and if they are fronted, the are morphologically marked.

There is a clear preference for subordinate clauses to precede main clauses, although this is not obbligatory.

Instruction: Give criteria for identifying core arguments (subjects and objects), and describe the range of copula constructions in nonverbal clauses. List all subtype relations used. Include links to language-specific relations definitions if any.


There are N Bororo UD treebanks:

Instruction: Treebank-specific pages are generated automatically from the README file in the treebank repository and from the data in the latest release. Link to the respective *-index.html page in the treebanks folder, using the language code and the treebank code in the file name.